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Vegetation On Which You Send Cattle To Pasture

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He it is Who sends down water (rain) from the sky; from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture."


(TMQ, An-Nahl - The Bees:10) [1]




This noble verse comes at the opening of Surat An-Nahl (the Bees); a Surah that was revealed in Makkah. It consists of 128 verses. The surah was given this name because it included the mention of bees. It is said that the origin of the name “Nahl” – the Arabic word for “bee” comes from the fact that Allah, Exalted be He, has endowed (nahala) these insects with the ability to produce honey; an endowment that distinguishes bees from all other insects. There are more than 750,000 different kinds of insects; each kind, in turn, contains billions.




Surat An-Nahl opens with a warning of the sudden start of the Day of Judgment, and the awful crime of polytheism. Allah says what can be translated as, *"The Event (the Hour or the punishment of disbelievers and polytheists or the Islamic laws or commandments) ordained by Allah will come to pass, so seek not to hasten it."*(TMQ, An-Nahl: 1). In this noble verse, there is an obvious challenge to those who call for the Day to come soon, claiming that it is only a lie that will never take place. Whoever denies this Day is an unbeliever because it is a well-established fact. The verse then glorifies Allah, the Exalted, confirming that He has no partner, likeness, rival, wife or son since all these are characteristics only attributed to creatures, and Allah (SWT) is far above any of His creatures' characteristics.




The verses continue emphasizing the truth of the Inspiration revealed by Allah to His chosen prophets and messengers. Allah chose such pious servants for carrying the responsibility of informing the people about the fact that there is only One God Whom they must fear, and warning them against the danger of disobedience.




Allah Almighty included in Surat An-Nahl many miracles of the universe that demonstrate His unique and creative power, as well as His Divinity, Oneness, Comprehensive Knowledge, and Great Wisdom.




The surah then moves to some scenes of the Day of Judgment. It also refutes the disbelievers' claim that they are destined to disbelief, and emphasizes the fact that every messenger’s mission was simply to inform people clearly of Allah’s message. Allah sent a messenger to every nation to call his people to worship none but Allah; to reject the worship of idols. Some nations believed in this message and others went astray. The verses call upon wise people to travel through the earth and consider what has befallen the disbelievers of previous nations.




The surah then addresses Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) about those who disbelieve in the Resurrection. It assures the believers who are forced to emigrate from their homes in order to escape the injustice that would befall them by tyrants that they will be compensated in this worldly life and will be given a double reward in the Hereafter in return for their perseverance for the sake of defending their religion and adhering to their belief.




The Surah then reminds the seal of prophets, Muhammad (peace be upon him), that the messengers and prophets who were sent to previous nations were ordinary human beings--not angels, gods, nor sons of gods as claimed by those who went astray. Like Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), those prophets and messengers were chosen by Allah to receive the Inspiration and inform their people.


The verses then warn the sinners that Allah may cause the earth to swallow them up, or He may inflict them with torture from anywhere, while they are traveling, in order to urge them to think deeply about asking the mercy and benevolence of Allah. The Surah then establishes the fact that everything in the heavens and on the earth--humans, angels, and animals--prostrate down humbly before Allah. *"They fear their Lord above them, and they do what they are commanded."* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 50)




The Surah then again warns against polytheism and emphasizes the Oneness of Allah over all His creatures. It stresses the fact that all creatures must fear and respect their Creator Who owns whatever exists in the heavens and the earth, Who is the source of the eternal religion, Who is the origin of all blessings for His creatures, and Who relieves their afflictions whenever they seek His help; though some people pray to Allah only in times of distress and return to polytheism as soon as the affliction is removed. The verses warn such people and threaten them against severe punishment.


The Surah blames polytheists for making erroneous judgments without having the right or knowledge to make them. It emphasizes that whoever fabricates and lies will be harshly rebuked and asked about all his deeds on the Day of Judgment. The Surah then blames them, too, for assigning daughters to Allah--Glorified and Exalted is He above all that they associate with Him—when, on the other hand, they assign for themselves what they prefer and desire without having the right to do so.




Surat An-Nahl then reproves polytheists for their unjustified hatred for baby girls to the extent of burying them alive. It emphasizes what can be translated as, *"For those who believe not in the Hereafter is an evil description, and for Allah is the highest disription. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise." *(TMQ, An-Nahl: 60). The Surah mentions the fact that if Allah punished humans for all their sins in this world, there would not have been a single creature living on earth. However, He postpones such judgment to a set date. When that date comes, no one can stop it or delay it. A sign of the polytheists' transgression is that they assign unto Allah what they hate; moreover, they falsely imagine that they will be rewarded in the afterlife. However, the surah confirms that such unbelievers will be punished in Hell soon.




At this point, the speech is directed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Allah tells him what can be translated as,* “By Allah, We indeed sent (Messengers) to the nations before you (O Muhammad), but Shaitân (Satan) made their deeds fair-seeming to them. So he (Satan) is their Wali (helper) today (i.e. in this world), and theirs will be a painful torment. And We have not sent down the Book (the Qur’an) to you (O Muhammad), except that you may explain clearly to them those things in which they differ, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a folk who believe."* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 63, 64).




The surah then blames those who worship idols beside Allah. Such idols do not and cannot possess any provision for themselves from the heavens or the earth. The surah warns them against putting forward any similitude for Allah (as there is nothing similar to Him, nor does He resemble anything). Only Allah knows how corrupt those who gave such examples are, and they are deluded. The verses contrast the happiness and success of believers against the corruption of polytheists and polytheism. It emphasizes that only Allah knows the future in the heavens and the earth. One matter of the future that only Allah knows is the date of the Day of Judgment which will come suddenly. Truly, Allah is All-knowing, All-Mighty. Allah again addresses His messenger, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), saying what can be translated as, *"Then, if they turn away, your duty (O Muhammad) is only to convey (the Message) in a clear way." (TMQ, An-Nahl: 82)




The Surah then emphasizes the fact that unbelievers recognize the blessings of Allah but they deny them. It then describes their state in the Day of Judgment. All messengers will witness for their people on that Day. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) will also bear witness for his people and for all those who disbelieved in his message and denied his prophethood during his lifetime up until the Day of Judgment. Thus, Allah says what can be translated as, *"And (remember) the Day when We shall raise up from every nation a witness against them from amongst themselves. And We shall bring you (O Muhammad) as a witness against these. And We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur’an) as an exposition of everything, a guidance, a mercy, and glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves (to Allah as Muslims)."* (Surat An-Nahl: 89). Allah says, *"And had Allah willed He could have made you (all) one nation, but He sends astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. But you shall certainly be called to account for what you used to do."* (Surat An-Nahl: 93). Allah also says,*" Whoever works righteousness - whether male or female - while he (or she) is a true believer (of Islamic Monotheism) verily, to him We will give a good life (in this world with respect, contentment and lawful provision), and We shall pay them certainly a reward in proportion to the best of what they used to do (i.e. Paradise in the Hereafter)."* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 97)




The Surah then orders Muslims to seek refugee in Allah (from Satan) before reciting Holy Qur'an. Allah addresses His messenger Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) saying what can be translated as, *"Say (O Muhammad) Ruh-ul-Qudus [Jibrîl (Gabriel)] has brought it (the Qur'an) down from your Lord with truth, that it may make firm and strengthen (the Faith of) those who believe, and as a guidance and glad tidings to those who have submitted (to Allah as Muslims)."* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 102)




The Surah rejects the false claim by some unbelievers that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was taught by another human. Allah says that the tongue of the man they refer to is foreign, while this (the Qur'an) is in a clear Arabic tongue. The Surah totally denounces those who disbelieve in Allah's verses, belying Him or denying His existence, except if one is forced to do so and his heart is assured with Faith. But those who open their breasts to disbelief, on them are wrath from Allah; they will be severely punished in the Hereafter.




On the other hand, Allah says what can be translated as, *"Then, verily, Your Lord--for those who emigrated after they had been put to trials and thereafter strove hard and fought (for the Cause of Allah) and were patient--verily, your Lord afterward is, Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful"* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 110).




One verse gives an example of the town of Makkah, in what can be translated as, *"And Allah puts forward the example of a township (Makkah) that dwelt secure and well-content: its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it (its people) denied the Favors of Allah (with ungratefulness). So Allah made it taste extreme of hunger (famine) and fear, because of that (evil, i.e. denying Prophet Muhammad) which they (its people) used to do.*" (TMQ, An-Nahl: 112).




At the end of the Surah, the verses mention some prohibited foods, emphasizing that the right of prohibition and permission is confined only to Almighty Allah. Such rights cannot be claimed by any imposter. Those imposters will eventually be losers in the Hereafter because they will have a temporary illusion of happiness in this life but will be punished in the afterlife. An example of those liars is Jews who disobeyed Allah’s orders. Allah forbade them from certain kinds of food as a result of their boundless, wickedness and exceeding the limits of Almighty Allah.




Still, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful for those who repent and do good deeds. *"Invite (mankind, O Muhammad) to the way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Revelation and the Qur'an) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided.”* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 125).




The Surah describes Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim) as a leader (or a nation) who had all the good righteous qualities: he was obedient to Allah, worshipped none but Allah, and he was not one of those who were Al-Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, and those who joined partners with Allah). He was thankful for Allah's Favors. Thus Allah chose him and guided him to a Straight Path (Islamic Monotheism - neither Judaism nor Christianity). Moreover, He ordered Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) to follow Abraham's religion.




The Surah tells us that Allah ordered the Jews to keep Saturdays sacred as a day of rest and worship, but some of them did not obey His orders, those will be charged by Him on the Day of Judgment.




Surah An-Nahl is concluded with an order by Allah to every Muslim through addressing Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) saying what can be translated as, *"Invite (mankind, O Muhammad) to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Revelation and the Qur'an) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided. And if you punish (your enemy, O you believers in the Oneness of Allah), then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. But if you endure patiently, verily, it is better for As-Sâbirûn (the patient). And endure you patiently (O Muhammad), your patience is not but from Allah. And grieve not over them (polytheists and pagans), and be not distressed because of what they plot. Truly, Allah is with those who fear Him (keep their duty unto Him), and those who are Muhsinûn (good-doers)"* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 125-128).



Tenets of Faith in Surat An-Nahl


1) Belief in Allah, the One who created all and everything, the God and owner of everything, who has no rivals in His kingdom and no partner in His Sovereignty, and He is not like any of His creatures. Belief in the ultimate power, mercifulness, compassion of Allah; and that He does not tolerate the arrogant, and that He knows whatever we reveal or hide.


2) Belief in the truth of inspiration revealed by Almighty Allah to His messengers, whom He carefully chose from all His creatures, sent them to various nations, in various times and eras, and finally concluded His inspiration through Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him, and upon his family, his followers and upon whoever follow his steps and take after him till the Day of Judgment).


The original versions of previous scriptures were exposed to a great deal of distortion, which lead the Christians and Jews to fall into polytheism, believing in paganism and false beliefs, Allah has undertaken the responsibility to fully protect His final message--every word and every letter--until the Day of Judgment with the same language with which it was revealed (the Arabic language).


3) Belief in the mission of every messenger of Allah, which is to carry the message of Allah to the people without affecting their free will to choose and thereby deserve their reward or punishment in the afterlife.


4) Belief in the truth and absoluteness of resurrection.


5) Belief in the truth of reward and punishment.


6) Belief that only Allah has the right to judge, and accordingly He decides what is prohibited and what is not.


7) Belief that Allah conferred on people minds to reason and reflect, free will to choose and direct, and made clear to them the right path that leads to happiness and blessing and the wrong path of evil, He then leaves the choice open for every person.


8) Belief that whatever exists in the world bows down to Almighty Allah, and that all idols alleged and worshipped by disbelievers such as rocks, trees, stars, planets and others are all creatures that cannot create anything, all of which worship Almighty Allah humbly.


9) Belief that Allah owns whatever is in the heavens and the earth, and that He alone has the right religion.



Noble traits encouraged in Surat An-Nahl


1) Calling for the establishment of justice on earth, treating people kindly, keeping promises, and other forms of good manners and refined qualities and rules of conduct based on fear of Allah.


2) Calling for spending money for the sake of Allah, especially on poor relatives.


3) Calling for Hijrah (traveling from an area of sins to an area of good morals) for the sake of Allah.


4) Warning from falling into fitnah (worldly temptations) and from the most dangerous disbelief after having believed in Allah.


5) Completely forbidding polytheism or the worship of anything other than Allah and any abomination or transgression.


6) Reminding of the various blessings of Allah on His worshippers; such as seeking refuge with Allah at every disaster and distress and that He will always give them relief.


7) Reminding mankind of the stages of his life starting from the fetus stage through the youth and adolescence, adulthood through old age or senility until death. The surah also compares those stages to the moving from times of wealth and wellbeing into distress and torment, or vice versa.



Signs of Creation in Surat An-Nahl


1) Creation of Heavens and earth with precision, and a confirmation that Allah is the Creator of all and everything.


2) Creation of mankind from semen, however man always responds to blessings and favors with denial and ingratitude.


3) Creation of animals (cows, camels, sheep and goats), with many benefits for mankind.


4) Creation of horses, mules, donkeys, and other means of transportation that were not known at the time of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). Allah can create what mankind does not know.


5) Rain falling from the sky for drinking, irrigating plants and trees, most importantly, olives, palm trees, grapes and all other fruits. Allah has made this a sign for those who believe in Him.


6) Preparing the earth for habitation by creating it in a spherical shape condensing it and rotating it around its axis and causing it to revolve around the sun (so that there is day and night). Allah also prepared the sun, the moon and other planets with His power for the sake of regulating life in the universe.


7) Spreading various types and kinds of living organisms and inanimate matter in earth.


8) Preparing the seas for the use of mankind, including the marine life with their tender flesh and their skeletons that are used in making jewels. Seas also have the ability to carry ships of various sizes which serve man's welfare while traveling across the waves and wind above the sea.


9) Fixing earth with huge mountains, acting as pegs, so as not to move or shake, if not for those mountains, earth would not have been fit for inhabitation. Formation of mountains is related to the rivers that source from their peaks. River water moves from its source to its mouth while breaking up rocks to produce fertilizing silt and clay, and deposit many valuable minerals, gems and other ore deposits and resources. It also helps to pave earth's surface and producing travel routes and mountain canyons.


10) Making different topographic details of earth’s surface as means of guiding people through the earth by day, and making stars a means of guiding them by night and at sea.


11) Describing the punishment of some previous nations which is similar in many ways to earthquakes that strike suddenly without leaving the chance for anyone to understand their mechanism. Allah emphasizes that He made earth collapse with those who disobeyed Him in the past, and that He CAN do this in the present and in the future. This includes an affirmation that, even if man could understand the mechanism and scientific reasons of various natural disasters, this does not eliminate them from being in the assortment of Allah's servants which He employs to punish the disbelievers and sinners, to test the pious and as a lesson and example for the rest.


12) Mentioning of the earth’s revolving around its axis while orbiting around the sun through the example of elongating and shrinking the shadow. Allah considers this as a sign of prostration in complete humble obedience.


13) Emphasizing Allah’s matchlessness in creating animals, in the formation of milk in their udders from between feces and blood to be drawn clear and pure and ready to be drunk.


14) Making palms and grape vines a legal source of earning one's living, though some people exploit them badly in the making of wine.


15) Creating bees, giving the female bees the ability to build their homes in mountains, in the trees and in hives set up for them by humans. He also gave them the ability to collect pollen and nectar from various flowers across wide distances without losing their way back home, the ability to produce that unique drink with varying colors from their bellies, wherein is healing for men.


16) Creating mates of the same kind and having, from these wives, offspring; this is applicable to every living creature in the biosphere. Among those are humans that could die as children, youth or old men, or could live to be a very old man suffering partial or total loss of memory (senility/dementia).


17) Babies are born knowing nothing; it is Allah who gives them the senses of hearing and sight. In the Holy Qur'an the power of hearing is always mentioned before the power of sight, and science recently discovered that fetus develops hearing long before his sight.


18) Mentioning that Allah is the One who holds birds in flight in the sky and is the One who gives them the ability to fly.


19) Mentioning both heat and cold with the same word “Harr” because both cases are described by either positive or negative degrees of temperature.


20) Prohibiting eating carrion, blood, pig flesh or animals which are slaughtered as a sacrifice for deities other than Allah with exceptions, in what can be translated as, *"But if one is forced by necessity, without willful disobedience, and not transgressing, - then, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 115).




Each item mentioned above needs a special approach but I will confine myself to discuss only the fifth point (concerning verse 10 of this surah). Before starting, we should first have a quick glance at the views of some Qur’anic commentators about the significance of the tenth verse in Surat An-Nahl.



The interpretation of the verse by scholars


Explaining verse 10, Surat An-Nahl: *"He it is Who sends down water (rain) from the sky; from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture."*



Ibn Kathir


A summary of Ibn Kathir's opinion: after Allah mentioned His great blessings on His creatures such as animals, He mentions the great blessing of rain from the sky which contains benefits for both humans and animals. Allah says: "from it you drink", as He has made it fresh and ready to be drunk rather than salty. "And from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture," means that Allah has sent the rainwater that caused trees and grasslands to grow in which humans herd, guard, and tend their animals.



Ibn Abbass


Ibn Abbass also said: the meaning of the word “pasture” is to guard and keep your animals.




* The remaining explanations of the verse contain similar views that I don't see important to repeat.

Scientific evidences in this verse


First: in the verse that can be translated as, *"He it is Who sends down water (rain) from the sky; from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture."*


Opening the Holy verse with the pronoun "He" that refers to "Allah" emphasizes that it is He who sends down water from the sky, and that no creature has any power in this vital process, without which life on earth would have been impossible.




It has been proven that the earth is the richest planet in water in the solar system. Earth is covered by a water zone (hydrosphere) measured to be about 1.4 billion cubic kilometers divided as follows:


1375,000,000 km3 in seas and oceans (97.5% of the water on earth),


28,000,000 km3 snow over the two poles of earth, and peaks of high mountains (2% of the total water in earth),


6.720.000 km3 held underground (0.48 of total water on earth),


280,000 km3 internal lakes and water streams (0.02% of total water on earth),


140,000 km3 soil moisture (0.01% of total water on earth),


14,000 km3 air moisture (0.001% of total water on earth)


Water covers about 71% of total area of the earth’s surface measured as 510 million square kilometers, while snow covers about 9% of the earth’s surface.




It was also proven that all the earth's water originally came from underground through volcanic eruptions. Holy Qur'an mentioned this truth before in Surat An-Naze'at, in the verse that can be translated as, *"And after that He spread the earth, and brought forth from there its water and its pasture."* (TMQ, An-Naze'at: 30-31) As the water vapor, which consists from over 70% of gases and vapors coming out of volcanic craters began reaching the higher levels of the atmosphere. Allah prepared for it an area with low pressure which causes such vapor to extend, and consequently cool. In addition to this the temperature drops on the peaks of such range to -60ú C above the equator. When the temperature and pressure of the air carrying water vapor drops, its relative humidity increases due to the drop in its density. When its relative humidity reaches 100% its pressure will be equal to that of water vapor. This degree of temperature is called saturation or “dew point”. The low temperature of saturated air is only achieved in high altitudes, where it encounters waves of cold air or when it collides with the peeks of high mountain chains. This immediately results in the condensation of vapor in the form of microscopic water droplets. The size of such droplets is less than one tenth of a micron. In this way, clouds are formed and unite at levels from 2 to 8 kilometers above sea level, though they could be found sometimes, beyond these limits.




These droplets cannot fall in the form of rainwater unless they reach the size and mass that enables them to be pulled down by the earth gravity. This can only happen when the clouds carry dust particles or minerals, or by the formation of snow or ice crystals which help water vapor to condense more effectively inside the clouds. They also help water droplets to reach the size and mass that cannot be held up in the air and thus the raindrops fall. The size of such drops is about two tenths or half of a millimeter.




When water falls onto the earth, a perfectly designed cycle begins to take place around the earth. The water cycle occurs according to a number of rules and regularities, which depict the ultimate power and refined creation. The heat of the sun annually vaporizes about 380 cubic kilometers of water that reaches the lower part of the earth atmosphere. This water condenses again in the form of rainwater and falls on earth – of this total volume, 320 cubic kilometers are vaporized from sea and ocean surfaces, 60 thousand cubic kilometers come from the land. This water returns again to the earth in its new order. This time, 284 thousand cubic kilometers fall on seas and oceans (losing 36 thousand cubic kilometers of the water that had vaporized from them), 96 thousand cubic kilometers fall upon earth (with an excess of 36 thousand cubic kilometers over what originally vaporized from them). This additional water returns again to oceans and seas, and the level of water in these bodies of water remains constant.




The distribution of water on earth’s surface is a marvelous cycle that plays – and will always play – a very important role in preparing the earth for life. If not for these vast bodies of water, the temperature of earth's atmosphere would rise to over 100 degrees Celsius in the morning, and drop under 100 degrees Celsius at night.




The water cycle around the earth causes the formation of mountain canyons and passages, valleys and streams. As a result, the soil is formed and much ore deposits are concentrated. The water flows over the depressions of earth forming lakes, seas and oceans. A portion of such water freezes in the form of masses of ice around the two poles of earth and on the high mountaintops. Some of that water penetrates through porous and semi-porous rocks into the underground to form water reservoirs (aquifers) stored inside fractured and porous rocks of the earth's crust. Some of this water remains in the soil and in the earth's atmosphere in the form of moisture for the benefit of living creatures on earth. Thus it is clear that Allah and none but Him, orders rain to fall on earth and will always do so.




Second, about the verse that can be translated as, *"…from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture." *It is impossible to find completely pure water on earth. However, rainwater and snow are considered to be the purest forms of natural water. This form of water, as it reaches the surface of earth, begins to dissolve minerals of the earth's rocks that are water-soluble. In this way, rainwater and snow constantly refresh the earth's water. This process is the only source providing fresh water for humans on earth. For this reason Allah reminds us of His favor saying what can be translated as, *"…from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture."* Earth water is constantly purified of whatever pollutants exist in it, in the form of soluble substances or microbes. This water purifying process extends from about one kilometer under earth's surface to about 7 - 17 kilometers above sea level.




The concentration of salts in seawater is about 34,481 thousand parts per million, and it includes 40 types of electrically charged (ionized) elements of which the concentration exceeds one part per million. The concentration of the most common salts in seawater varies between 32 thousand parts per million to 42 thousand parts per million. The level of salt concentration can rise over that level in closed and semi-closed seas, especially in dry areas such as eastern parts of the Arab world. For example, the salt concentration level in the Dead Sea can reach about 285 thousand parts per million.




Water is considered fresh if the amount of salts are less than a thousand parts per million, while rain water salts do not exceed twenty parts per million. Water is a fundamental element in the formation of all living beings. All vital activities and their reactions must take place in the presence of water.




þThird: Allah says what can be translated as, *"He it is Who sends down water (rain) from the sky; from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture." *(TMQ, An-Nahl: 10)




Scientifically, water is known to have existed on earth before the existence of all living beings. Plants existed before animals and they both were created before human beings. The reason behind this is very obvious. Plants have played, and still play, the main role in supplying the atmosphere of the earth with oxygen. Plants are the divine factory where the organic elements necessary for the construction of the plants, animals and human beings are made. Therefore, it became man’s and animals’ chief food.




The greatness of the holy verse is made obvious when Allah says what can be translated as, *"He it is Who sends down water (rain) from the sky; from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture."* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 10).




Glory be to Allah who revealed the holy Qur’an to His seal of Prophets. He revealed it with His comprehensive knowledge and swore to preserve it in its original form and language of revelation (the Arabic language) word for word, letter for letter throughout the 14 centuries and until the Day of Judgment. Through such preservation the Qur’an continues to be the light which guides people, divine as it was revealed and a witness that it could never be a man-made book. The Qur’an is the word of Allah, and evidence for the Prophethood of the Messenger of Allah; peace and blessings be upon him and those who followed him to the Day of Judgment.

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