Scientific Wonders of the Qur’an Latest Topicshttps://www.gawaher.com/forum/474-scientific-wonders-of-the-qur%C3%A2%E2%82%AC%E2%84%A2an/Scientific Wonders of the Qur’an Latest TopicsenBut Their Description In The Injeel (gospel) Is Like A(sown)https://www.gawaher.com/topic/28103-but-their-description-in-the-injeel-gospel-is-like-asown/III. “… but their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a(sown) seed which sends forth its shoots, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands on its stem, …” (TMQ, Al-Fateh – The Conquest: 29)

 

 

 

This ayah is the last ayah of Surat Al-Fateh which was revealed in Madinah. It is called Al-Fateh as it begins with a reference to the great victory that Allah (SWT) made possible for the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in the signing of the Treaty of Hodaybia. Many of the Muslims present at the time felt that this treaty was a concession to the disbelievers in Makkah. Omar Ibnul-Khattab (RA) said to the Prophet (PBUH), “Aren’t you the Messenger of Allah?” He said: “Yes!” He said, “Aren’t we Muslims?” He said, “Yes!” He said, “Aren’t they infidels?” He said, "Yes!” Then Omar asked, “Then why is our religion humiliated?” The Prophet (PBUH) answered him, “I am Allah’s servant and His Messenger, I will not disobey His command, and He will not lead me astray.” When this Surat was revealed, starting with the words, “Verily, We have given you (O Muhammad) a manifest victory”, one of the companions of the Prophet (PBUH) asked, “O, Messenger of Allah, is it a victory?” The Prophet (PBUH) answered, “Yes! By the One in whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, it is a victory.”

 

 

 

The Treaty of Hodaybia provided the Muslims with an opportunity to meet many Arab tribes, to invite them to Islam and to explain the virtues of this faith which was to be the last divine religions calling people to belief in the Oneness of Allah (tawhid). The treaty also exposed the fanaticism of the efforts of the Quraysh in preventing the Prophet (PBUH) and the early Muslims from entering the shrine of the Ka’ba (Al-haram) for six years, from when the Prophet (PBUH) migrated to Madinah until the day of Hodaybia. They forbade them from entering Makkah out of prejudice which was in contradiction to the traditions of the time. They forbade them from visiting Makkah during the sacred months that the Arabs respected and glorified even during the pre-Islamic period (Al-jahiliyya). This event allowed the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula to witness the tolerant nature of Islam, the nobility of the Muslims and the blind stubbornness of the disbelievers.

 

 

 

In 6 AH (after Hijra), the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) had a vision that he was entering the Ka’ba with a group of Muslims, some of whom had shaven heads and others had their hair cut short; they were not afraid. The visions of Prophets are true. In Dhul-Qa’dah of the same year, he set out for Makkah with the intention of performing the minor pilgrimage (Umrah) and without the intention of fighting the disbelievers. He was accompanied by 1400 immigrants from Makkah (Al-Muhajireen) and the residents of Madinah (Al-Ansar). He also encouraged the tribes around Madinah to go with him. When he arrived at a place known as Thaniyat Al-Mirar, the Prophet’s camel knelt down and would not move. The people said, “The camel won’t move (i.e. she is being stubborn)”. The Prophet (PBUH) said, “She has never been stubborn. This is not her nature; she has been held back by He who held back the elephants from Makkah. Today I shall accept whatever plan the Quraysh propose to me asking me to tighten my ties of kinship”. Bukhari reports that the Prophet (PBUH) said, “By the One in whose hands is my soul, I shall accept their offer of any plan that glorifies the sanctity of Allah.” The Prophet (PBUH) and his Companions then proceeded until they reached Al-Hodaybia. There, Quraysh refused to allow them to enter Makkah. The Prophet (PBUH) sent Othman Ibn-Affan (RA) to them with a message that he did not intend to fight and had only come to perform the Umrah. Quraysh held Othman captive after he gave them the Prophet’s message. The leaders of the Quraysh told him that he could make tawaf (circumambulate the Ka’ba) if he wished to but he said, “I will not do so until the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) does.”

 

A rumor spread that Othman Ibn-Affan (RA) had been killed. The Prophet (PBUH) said: “We will not leave without fighting the people.” He then called on them to make a pledge to him under a tree; this pledge became known as Bay’at Ar-Radwan (Pledge of consent). Later, they learned that the rumor about Othman’s murder was unfounded so the Muslims agreed to cease hostilities with the Makkans and set down the conditions of a settlement with them that became known as the Treaty of Hodaybia. The Prophet (PBUH) had to forego some of his rights to protect the Muslims but he knew that Allah would create a victory for the Muslims out of this settlement. The treaty allowed any Arab tribe to choose to enter a peaceful alliance either with the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) or with Quraysh. The Khuza’ah tribe chose to make an alliance with the Prophet (PBUH) and the Bakr tribe entered into one with Quraysh. The Muslims respected and abided by all of the conditions of the Treaty of Hodaybia but Quraysh broke the rules when they decided to help their ally, the Bakr tribe, against the Khuza’ah tribe, who were allied to the Prophet (PBUH). This action led to the decision of the Prophet (PBUH) to conquer Makkah.

 

 

 

Between 8 - 10 Ramadan in 8AH, a Muslim army of 10,000 fighters left Madinah for Makkah. In honor of the sanctity of Makkah, the Prophet (PBUH) ordered his army not to kill anyone unless they were forced to. The Prophet (PBUH) entered Makkah bearing a white flag, wearing a black turban, riding his camel “Al-Qaswaa” and reading Surat Al-Fateh. He lowered his head in humility to Allah (SWT) as Allah had allowed him to conquer Umm al-Qura (the mother of all cities), Makkah, the town in which he first received the revelation and the home of the Sacred House. The Muslims entered Makkah with him in peace and tranquility - fearlessly - just like the Prophet (PBUH) had seen in his dream.

 

 

 

The Muslims then removed all the idols from the Ka’ba and performed tawaf while the Messenger of Allah recited, “There is no God worthy of worship except Allah, alone, who has no partner. He had fulfilled His promise and granted victory to His servant, dignified His soldiers, and defeated the allies Himself”. He then recited the following ayah *[“O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allâh is that (believer) who has At-Taqwâ [i.e. he is one of the Muttaqûn (the pious)]. Verily, Allâh is All-Knowing, All-Aware” (TMQ, 49:13).

 

 

 

Surat Al-Fateh was revealed in 6 AH straight after the Treaty of Hodaybia while the Prophet of Allah (PBUH) was returning to Madinah with his companions. This Surah includes details of this settlement. It is reported that the Prophet (PBUH) said, “Yesterday, a Surah was revealed to me that is better than this life and everything in it: “Verily, We have given you (O Muhammad) a manifest victory.” (This has been related by Bukhari, Nasai’, and Tirmidhi.)

 

 

 

Surat Al-Fateh starts with an address to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) reassuring him that the path Allah guided him to is the correct path and that the promise of Allah will become reality in a very short time. Concerning these issues, Allah (SWT) says at the beginning of the Surat *"Verily, We have given you (O Muhammad) a manifest victory. That Allâh may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, and complete His Favor on you, and guide you on the Straight Path. And that Allâh may help you with strong help."* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 1-3) The ayahs stress the fact that Allah (SWT) is He who put peace and tranquility into the hearts of the believers so that they may grow in faith, for faith increases and decreases. Allah (SWT) then gave glad tidings to the believers of His forgiveness and reward and His help in the form of His soldiers (He has soldiers in the heavens and the earth; no one knows the soldiers of your lord except Him). The ayahs mention Allah’s attributes of being the All-Knower, the All-Wise, the All- Powerful, the Mighty and the Forbearing. The ayahs then describe the rewards that await the believing men and women, and the punishment that Allah has prepared for the hypocrites (men and women) and the polytheists (men and women) who worship others with Allah.

 

 

 

The Surat addresses the Prophet (PBUH) once more in ayah, *"Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad) as a witness, as a bearer of glad tidings, and as a warner"* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 8), meaning that he is a witness for his Ummah (nation) and for all creation, a bearer of glad tidings for the believers and a warning for the disbelievers and the hypocrites. The ayahs then address the believers in what can be translated as, *“In order that you (O mankind) may believe in Allâh and His Messenger, and that you assist and honor him (PBUH), and (that you) glorify (Allâh’s) praises morning and afternoon. “* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 9)

 

 

 

The address then rapidly switches again to the Prophet (PBUH), praising the Bay’at Ar-Ridwan (pledge of consent), and gives glad tidings of Allah’s reward for those who fulfill it and warns those who breaks their pledge as it is a covenant with Allah (SWT). The ayah can be translated as, *“Verily, those who give Bai‘ah (pledge) to you (O Muhammad (PBUH)) they are giving Bai‘ah (pledge) to Allâh. The Hand of Allâh is over their hands. Then whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm; and whosoever fulfils what he has covenanted with Allâh, He will bestow on him a great reward.” * (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 10).

 

 

 

The ayahs of Surat Al-Fateh turn to the Bedouin hypocrites who refused to accompany the Prophet (PBUH) and made up excuses and lies because they thought he would not be victorious. However, they asked him to ask forgiveness for them and they wanted to share in the spoils he brought back. Allah is well aware of their actions and he had prepared Hell fire for the disbelievers and the hypocrites. Allah says *“And to Allâh belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. He forgives whom He wills, and punishes whom He wills. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 14).

 

 

 

The ayahs of Surat Al-Fateh address those who stayed behind informing them that they would be called to jihad again and if they stay behind once more, they would be punished severely. The ayah can be translated as, *“Say (O Muhammad (PBUH)) to the Bedouins who lagged behind: "You shall be called to fight against a people given to great warfare, then you shall fight them, or they shall surrender. Then if you obey, Allah will give you a fair reward; but if you turn away as you did turn away before, He will punish you with a painful torment"* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 16).

 

 

 

The ayahs then discuss the case of the people who are excused from taking part in jihad, for example the blind, the lame and the sick, saying *“No blame or sin is there upon the blind, nor is there blame or sin upon the lame, nor is there blame or sin upon the sick (that they go not for fighting). And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad (PBUH)), He will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow (Paradise); and whosoever turns back, He will punish him with a painful torment.” * (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 17).

 

 

 

The ayahs then praised the believers who participated in the Bay’at of Ar-Radwan (pledge of consent), emphasizing that Allah (SWT) is pleased with them; He sent down calmness and tranquility on their hearts, He defended them and strengthened them. Allah has given them glad tidings of the rapid conquest of Makkah and of the abundant rewards they will obtain because He is the Ever All-Mighty and All-Wise; part of this reward is that He prevented the disbelievers from fighting them. He made this a sign for them and guided them to the straight path, for He is able to do all things.

 

 

 

The ayahs emphasize that if the disbelievers had fought the believers, they would not find any protectors. This is one of the laws that Allah decreed on previous nations; divine laws cannot be replaced or changed without Allah’s permission. The glad tidings Allah gives to the believers in Surat Al-Fateh became a reality when the Muslims entered Makkah without bloodshed, making Islam sovereign in the Arabian Peninsula and supreme over all other religions. This is an honor that Allah (SWT) bestowed on the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and the Muslims. Allah is all-aware of the deeds of His servants; He knows what lie in their hearts and what their intentions are. Allah punished Quraysh who had refused to allow the believers to enter the Sacred Masjid two years earlier, on the day of Hodaybia. Allah says about this *“They are the ones who disbelieved (in the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism) and hindered you from Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (at Makkah) and detained the sacrificial animals from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His Mercy whom He wills - if they (the believers and the disbelievers) had been apart, We verily would have punished those of them who disbelieved with painful torment. When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness - the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, - then Allah sent down His Sakînah (calmness and tranquility) upon His Messenger (PBUH) and upon the believers, and made them stick to the word of piety (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but Allah); and they were well entitled to it and worthy of it. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.”* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 25, 26).

 

 

 

The ayahs discuss the pride and haughtiness of the jahiliyya that caused Quraysh not to allow the Prophet (PBUH) and the believers to enter Makkah to perform Umrah. The believers were very angry with this action, but Allah (SWT) sent down tranquility upon his Messenger (PBUH) and the believers and made them hold true to their belief. And Allah has made the dream of His Prophet (PBUH) become a reality. He says what can be translated as, “Indeed Allâh shall fulfill the true vision which He showed to His Messenger (PBUH) [i.e. the Prophet saw a dream that he has entered Makkah along with his Companions, having their (head) hair shaved and cut short] in very truth. Certainly, you shall enter Al-Masjid-al-Harâm, if Allâh wills, secure, (some) having your heads shaved, and (some) having your head hair cut short, having no fear. He knew what you knew not, and He granted besides that a near victory.” (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 27).

 

 

 

The Surah ends with confirmation of the Prophethood and the message given to Muhammad (PBUH), which disbelievers throughout history denied. Allah says *“He it is Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad (PBUH)) with guidance and the religion of truth (Islam), that He may make it (Islam) superior to all religions. And All-Sufficient is Allah as a Witness.”* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 28).

 

 

 

In addition to this, Allah confirms through His divine witness that it is He who revealed the description of the seal of His Prophets (PBUH), and the description of the believers with him in the previously revealed books such as Torah and Gospel saying *“Muhammad (PBUH) is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taurât (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers, that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allah has promised those among them who believe (i.e. all those who follow Islamic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise).”*(TMQ, Al-Fateh: 29).

 

 

Signs of creation in Surat Al-Fateh:

 

 

 

The main theme of Surat Al-Fateh is the Treaty of Hodaybia; the event is explained in detail with the lessons Muslims of all ages need to draw from it. In spite of this focus, this Surah includes a number of facts about life and the universe which can be listed as follows:

 

 

 

1) “And to Allâh belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth”. This point is mentioned twice in Surat Al-Fateh, in the fourth and seventh ayahs. Among the “hosts” of the heavens and the earth are angels and the righteous among the humans and the jinn. Also the different universal phenomena such as; the movement of the earth and celestial bodies, shooting stars and meteors, the succession of night and day, the seasons, thunder and lighting, wind, clouds, rain, the flow and stores of water, earthquakes, volcanoes, storms and tornadoes on earth and in the sea, among others. All of these natural phenomena are from among the hosts of Allah. Although scientists understand the mechanics of these occurrences, it does not change the fact that Allah (SWT) uses them to punish sinners, test the righteous and to serve as an example for those who were saved.

 

 

 

2) “And to Allâh belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth.” This fact is mentioned in the fourteenth ayah of Surat Al-Fateh, and many other ayahs. It is not possible for a rational person to conceive of the universe as existing without a Creator, Owner or Proprietor who has power, knowledge and wisdom. The material world cannot exist of itself or through mere coincidence because it is subject to many laws that cannot be replaced or changed; coincidence is far too limited to achieve this. There must, therefore, be a great Creator for this universe who has no partner in His Dominion, no rival to his kingdom or similitude from his creation.

 

 

 

3) The divine laws of Allah in the universe are not replaced, exchanged or changed without the permission of Allah (SWT). Surat Al-Fateh refers to this fact in ayah 23, “…And you will not find any change in the Way of Allâh.” (Al-Fateh: 23)

 

 

 

4) Reference to some of the characteristics of the last Messenger, Muhammad (PBUH) and reference to the characteristics of those who believed with him in the Torah and Gospel.

 

 

 

5) Allah compares the growth in the number of Muslims from the small number who followed the Prophet (PBUH) when he first started calling to Islam in their gradual increase to a plant reproduction method using the sprouts that grow in the part between the root and the stem. This method of reproduction was discovered only recently, but this ayah using it as a symbol was revealed over fourteen hundreds years ago in the Qur’an. The fact that this book was revealed to an illiterate Prophet whose people who were mostly illiterate people dwelling in the desert has many interpretations for people who have intelligence and vision.

 

 

 

Each of the issues raised require special attention, thus I will limit the discussion only to the last point, which is the plant reproduction by the abovementioned method. Before I begin, let us have a quick look at some scholar’s interpretations of this ayah.

 

 

Interpretation of this ayah by some scholars:

 

 

 

The ayah that can be translated as, *“Muhammad (PBUH) is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taurât (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers, that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allah has promised those among them who believe (i.e. all those who follow Islamic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise).”* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 29).

 

 

 

 

 

Ibn-Kathir said, “This nation (the Muslims) has been honored in the earlier Books; the most honored and greatest are the companions of the Prophet (PBUH). Allah has mentioned this in the earlier Books which is why Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as, (This is their description in the Taurât) and He says what can be translated as, (But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers.) This is how the companions of the Prophet (PBUH) were: they helped him, assisted him, and made him victorious. They were with him like the sprouts to the plant (that He may anger the disbelievers with them).

 

 

 

Other commentaries on the Qur’an provide similar descriptions, thus there is no need to list them.

 

 

Scientific indications in this ayah:

 

 

 

The ayah that we are examining states that the example of the Prophet (PBUH) and his companions was mentioned in the Injil (Bible), revealed to the Prophet Isa (AS), was an early announcement of the mission of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), seal of the Prophets: “… like a (sown) seed which sends forth its sprouts, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem …”

 

We use the Arabic word “Shata’a” shoot for a plant when it develops extra stems from the nodes at the base of the stem that resemble it completely, whereas the branches are different from the stem and sprout out from any part of it.

 

 

 

“Then it supports” means that the original plant supplies the new shoot with the necessary nutrients, then it becomes more strong and reinforcing the mother plant at its base. In saying “supporting”, it means strengthening it from the bottom. It has been scientifically proven that when the new sprout formed from the primary mother plant, it is completely dependent on it for nutrition until it develops three green leaves and four or five roots, making it able to become self-dependent.

 

 

 

“Then it becomes thick” means that it changes from being fine to becoming thick strengthening the walls of its cells by secreting large amounts of cellulose and lignin forming of a number of nodes covered with leaf sheaths.

 

 

 

“And it stands straight on its stems” meaning it is standing straight on its roots. “Stems” is the plural of “stem” and this stage – the stage of standing straight on its stems- follows the stage of becoming thick where the cells start dividing to lengthen the area between each node and the one next to it known as the “Internodes”. The internodes push one another until growth is complete, and the stem stands straight on the stalk when the stalk reaches the final stage of its development.

 

 

 

As for palm tillers, there are two types: The first type grows at a certain height from the trunk of the palm tree and does not have roots; it is known by as the Stolon. The second kind grows at the bottom of the palm tree and has its own roots. It can be removed from the palm tree to be used to propagate the tree by planting it elsewhere.

 

 

 

The ayah we are examining refers to a botanical fact that was recently discovered, that is the reproduction in some plants by the method of sprouting which refers to the sprouts that grow at the part between the root and the stem. This method is used in some cash crops such as wheat, barley, rice, sorghum, sugar cane, and others from the gramineae family. They are distinguished by; tape-like leaves, slim longitudinal stems which consist of connected internodes, complex flowers that blossom then take the form of spikes later. They also have fibrous roots with rhizome nodes and they mostly reproduce by sprouting, which increases their caryopsis. The “family Gramineae” which is the grass family, is one of the largest in the whole plant kingdom (comprising over 450 genera out of the plant genera and contain more than 7000 species). Each of these species represents billions of members and so the members of this family have spread over the earth covering huge areas, greater than the area covered by any other plant families. The gramineae family contains annual and perennial spreading grasses that often have slim internodal stems as in the case of Bermuda grass. Allah (SWT) made it able to reproduce through sprouting so its stem would strengthen in the face of the wind, straighten and increase its caryopsis yield.

 

 

 

Sprouting is basically the sprouts that grow in the area between the root and the stem, even in the case of wheat whose roots are made of a basic group growing from the germinated seed and an un-basic group that grows from the side sprouts. The stem is also divided into two; the main stem sprouting from the plumule which comes out of the germinated seed after its full growth and various horizontal stalks sprouting from the base of the stem (in the form of horizontal straws that grow from the axial sprouts which exist on the base nodes and grow up on the base of the main stem). That is the reason why plants that reproduce by the method of shooting undergo stages of; germination, seeding, shooting, blossoming then producing caryopsis. In turn, caryopsis multiply through sprouting that could reach 30 in one plant. That’s how a group of stems can sprout from one single seed surrounding the main stem, making a complex collection of stems connected with each other and feeding from the fibrous root that in turn grew from one single seed of wheat. All from the same origin and all from the same seedling and the same root. The sprouts would grow till they reach the length of the original stem and they produce spikes just like them. So each sprout would have its own wheat spike just like the main stem. The wheat spike is a compound one (it carries other spikelets inside it). All are arranged in two rows till they reach the end spikelet. Each spikelet carries 2 to 3 wheat grains, whereas the spike carries 15 to 20 wheat grains. When the sprout multiply the original stem of the plant is surrounded by a number of secondary stems (sprouting), that grow in the form of a bundle increasing the circumference of the main plant, enabling it to stand upright over its own roots to face the wind. It also prevents any weeds from growing next to it. On the other hand, tillers (like the palm tillers) would weaken the mother plant and reduce the amount of nutrients sap reaching it, especially those which reach high near the trunk. They also act as perfect hosts for pests and insects.

 

 

 

The reader of the Holy Qur’an will be surprised by the precise choice of the word shoot in the ayah that we are examining because shoots are completely different from palm tillers and from other offspring of plants. The new parts of the plant that developed from sprouting are not removed from the primary plant, but the tillers and other offspring are removed from their origins as in the case with the date palm trees. Botany researches have proved that sprouting prevents the mother plant from being dormant (which usually happens during the formation of the spikes).

 

 

 

The ayah describes the strong tie between the seal of the Prophets (PBUH) and his companions, which was demonstrated in their love, care, and mercy for one another at a degree that is not comparable to any relations among people or groups. The ayah uses the term “shooting” around the origin and strengthening one another. All the parts receive their nutrition from one source. The ayah did not choose palm tillers as an example since its role is completely different.

 

 

 

While the sprouts receive their nutrients with the original stem from the same root system, and never separate from it (otherwise they would die) the tillers that grow from the base of the palm tree separate from its origin by forming other side horizontal roots that become its main source of nutrition for the palm tiller. This allows it to be independent from its origin, and can be moved to another place where it starts a new life that is completely independent from the origin that produced it. Allah gave the likeness of the Prophet (PBUH) when he was sent with the Message, and took on the responsibility of Allah’s religion by himself to the example of a blessed plant and talking about his companions. He also gave the likeness of the companions of the Prophet (PBUH) - their gathering around him, their love for him, their sincerity, their loyalty to his blessed personality - to the growing sprouts around a blessed plant. It was not proper to use the example of tillers that quickly separate from its origin in their case. The companions of the Prophet (PBUH) were very attached and close to him. They were connected to him all through his life, and even after his death. Every one of the blessed companions and every Muslim would wish and pray that Allah allows him to live according to the Sunnah of the seal of the Prophet (PBUH), and die on his creed, to be resurrected among his companions, and united with him in the highest place in paradise, Allah willing. The best proof to this is the description of Urwa Ibn-Masoud al-Thaqafi, before embracing Islam, of the love of the companions to the Prophet (PBUH) when he came to him as a representative from Quraysh on the day of Hodaybia. He returned, and told them: “O people of Quraysh, I have visited Chosroes in his kingdom, Caesar in his kingdom, and Negus in his kingdom. But by Allah, I have not seen a king in his kingdom like Muhammad among his companions. They will never leave him in any case, so make up your minds.”

 

The plant that sends forth its shoots, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem is an example to the companions toward the Prophet (PBUH): their gathering, love, loyalty, allegiance, sacrifice, and production from the same source. This precise example is an assertion that the Holy Qur’an cannot be man made because no human knew the difference between the sprout, the branch and the tiller from fourteen centuries, or not even one century ago. And this is a witness of the Prophethood and the message of the seal of the Prophet (PBUH) who received it. So the Prayer and Peace of Allah be on the Prophet, his family, his companions, and whoever follows his call until the Day of Judgment. Our last prayer is, ‘praise be to the Lord of the worlds’.

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28103Sun, 02 Apr 2006 04:55:59 +0000
The First House (of Worship) Appointed For Mankindhttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/28101-the-first-house-of-worship-appointed-for-mankind/I.* “Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-‘Âlamîn (mankind and jinn).” * [TMQ, Surat Al-’Imran – The Family of Imran: 96]

 

 

 

This Holy ayah comes in the middle of Surat Al-Imran; which is a Madinan Surah and one of the longest Surahs in Holy Qur'an as it consists of two hundred ayahs after the “Basmallah”. This Surah is named Al-Imran as it contains a reference to the family of Maryam (Mary) the daughter of Imran, and the mother of Jesus (peace be upon him and our Prophet Muhammad). On this subject Allah says *“Allah chose Adam, Nûh (Noah), the family of Ibrâhîm (Abraham) and the family of ‘Imran above the ‘Âlamîn (mankind and jinn) (of their times).Offspring, one of the other, and Allâh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.”* (TMQ, Al-’Imran: 33-34).

 

 

 

This Surah relates the story of Imran's wife, and their daughter Maryam the mother of Jesus (peace be upon them). The Surah also relates the story of the miraculous birth of Jesus without having a father, and sheds light on the miracles bestowed on him by Almighty Allah. The Surah further contains references to Prophet Zakariah (Zacharia) and his son Yahia (John the Baptist), whom Allah blessed him with when he was very old. The Surah also contains a detailed description of the battle of Uhud.

 

 

 

The main theme of this Surah is its dialogue with the People of the Scripture (those who believe in the Gospel and the Torah). This dialogue highlights and defines a number of tenets of the Islamic Faith.

 

 

Tenets of faith in Surat Al-Imran:

 

 

 

The Tenets of Faith mentioned in Surat Al-Imran can be summarized in the following points:

 

First:

 

Belief in Allah as the sole God, worshipping Him only, with no partners, peers or rivals; refraining from using any description for Him (glory be to our Lord) that does not befit His Excellence and Majesty (such as claiming that Allah may have a wife or a son, which is a quality of creatures of Allah and does not befit His Majesty).

 

 

 

Belief that Almighty Allah is the Ever-Living, the One who sustains and protects all that exists, the One who knows everything in heavens and earth. Belief that Glorious Allah is the One who shapes fetuses in the wombs of their mothers as He wills. That He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise, that Allah is All-Seer of the (His) worshippers; and that Allah is the Possessor of the dominion, giving power to whom He wills, and taking power from whom He wills. That Allah endows with honor those whom He wills, and He humiliates whom He wills, and that He is the source of goodness. Belief that Allah is Able to do all things; that He knows what is in the heavens and what is in the earth; that victory only comes with His guidance; and that He supports whom He wills with victory. Belief that right guidance is the Guidance of Allah; that all bounties are from Allah, and that Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Aware. He selects for His Mercy (Islam and the Qur'an with Prophethood) whom He wills and Allah is the Owner of Great Bounty. Allah is full of kindness to (His) worshippers, and at the same time He is, All-Able of Retribution, and that He never breaks (His) Promise.

 

Second:

 

Belief in Divine Revelation revealed by Almighty Allah to His Messengers, in order to guide people; and that He compiled, finished and preserved it in His final ultimate Message (The Holy Qur'an and Prophet Muhammad’s Sunnah), and that this final Message confirms what came before it of Divine revelation and is dominant over them all. In this respect, belief in the Messengers of Allah is an essential part in the belief in Divine Revelation.

 

Third:

 

Belief that the Holy Qur'an contains ayahs that are explicit (the foundations of the Book), and others that are vague (Allah being the only One that knows their true interpretation). .

 

Fourth:

 

Belief that every person will die one day, and that Almighty Allah will definitely gather all people in a day that is beyond any doubt. In other words, the belief in the truth of the Afterlife and Day of Judgment, and in major incidents they include; such as resurrection and judgment, Heaven and Hell, that Heaven is the final abode of the pious and that Hell is the final abode of the sinners; that the faces of the pious will be bright on the Day of Judgment while the faces of those who disbelieved after being believers and rejected faith after accepting it will be dark.

 

Fifth:

 

Belief that the sole religion of Allah is Islam (Submission to Allah), and that those who were given the Scripture (Gospel and Torah) did not disagree except, out of mutual envy, after knowledge had come to them. And whoever disbelieves in the ayat (proofs, evidences, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allah then surely, Allah is Swift in calling to account.

 

Sixth:

 

The belief in the importance of obeying Allah and His final Messenger Muhammad (peace be upon him), following his Sunnah, and holding fast, all Muslims together, to the Rope of Allah (i.e. this Qur'an), and belief in the importance of not being divided amongst themselves.

 

Seventh:

 

Belief that true believers in Islamic Monotheism, and real followers of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his Sunnah form the best community ever raised up for mankind; because they enjoin Al-Ma‘rûf (i.e. Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam has ordained) and forbid Al-Munkar (polytheism, disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden), and they believe in Allah. However, if they do not do this, they will lose that honor. (I fear that supremacy might be misunderstood as a Muslim belief that they are better then everyone else. I chose honor instead)

 

 

 

Eighth:

 

Belief in fate and destiny, and that affliction is an essential part of one’s life that should be faced with contentment, patience and acceptance of Allah's destiny.

 

 

Signs of creation in Surat Al-Imran:

 

(1) That Glorious Allah is the One who shapes fetuses in the wombs of their mothers as He wills.

 

(2) A reference to the theory that Earth revolves daily around its axis by mentioning that night enters into day, and that day enters into night according to Allah's Will.

 

(3) A reference to the cycle of life, death and resurrection by mentioning bringing the living out of the dead, and bringing the dead out of the living.

 

(4) A reference to the creation of Adam from clay or earth.

 

(5) An assertion of the fact that the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessings.

 

(6) An assertion that Allah owns whatever exists on Earth or in the heavens, and to Him only all matters return (for decision).

 

(7) An assertion that everyone shall experience death and that no person can ever die except by Allah's will and at an appointed term.

 

(8) A reference to the human tendency to react to grief by remembering other sad situations, this is a psychological issue discovered by recently.

 

(9) A reference to the fact that in the creation of the heavens and the earth and in the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for people of understanding; and that contemplating upon them is a means of knowing the Creator (Exalted are You above all that they associate with You as partners), and some of His glorious attributes and excellent abilities that have no barriers in excellence in the art of creation.

 

 

 

Each one of these issues needs a separate discussion, which is what I will do God willing, in the following articles. But I will focus here on the fifth point which deals with the fact that first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah). However, before I begin, I’ll go over the interpretation of this ayah by some scholars.

 

 

Interpretations of this ayah by some scholars:

 

 

 

*“Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessings, and a guidance for Al-‘Âlamîn (mankind and jinn).”* (TMQ, Al-Imran: ayah 96).

 

* Ibn-Kathir (May Allah have mercy on his soul) said: Allah tells us that the first house appointed for mankind, for the purpose of worship and performing rituals, circumambulating around or facing towards it during daily prayers, and where people could resort to focus on spirituality, was the House in Bakkah (Makkah). This “house” is the Ka’ba, which was erected (upon previously established foundations) by Ibrahim (Abraham) and his son Isma’il (Ishmael) (peace be upon them). That is why Allah says in the holy ayah what can be translated as, *"full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-‘Âlamîn (mankind and jinn)"*. Abu-Dhar (may Allah be pleased with him) related: "I once asked Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him): ‘Which was the very first Masjid?’ He said: ‘The Sanctified Masjid.’ I asked: ‘Then which?’ He said: ‘The Aqsa Masjid.’ I asked: ‘How many years were between them?’ He said: ‘40 years.’ I asked: ‘Then which?’ He said: ‘Wherever you are when the time for Salat comes then pray… they are all Masjids of Allah.’" (Related by Ahmed, and reported by the two Sheikhs, Bukhari and Muslim, in the same form).

 

It was related that Ali (may Allah be pleased with him) once said: There were houses before this one, but this was the very first House appointed for mankind for the purpose of worshipping Allah. On the other hand, Al-Sudday claimed that it was the very first House ever built on earth (this is really a marvelous interpretation that exceeds the knowledge available in that era by many centuries, although Ibn Kathir added that: Ali's words are more trusted).

 

 

 

Concerning the name Bakkah mentioned in the holy ayah, it is a famous name of Makkah. It was said that Makkah was called Bakkah because it overpowers tyrants and it is where they are defeated and humiliated. It was also said that this name goes back to the fact that people came in crowds to Makkah. Katada said: Allah gathers all people in this place; women pray in front of men in this place and nowhere else. Shuba related that Ibrahim said: “Bakkah is the house and Masjid.” Ikramah said: “The house and what surrounds it is Bakkah, while what is outside of this is Makkah.” Mukatel Ibn Hayan said: “Bakkah is the place of the house while what is other than this is Makkah.” There are many other names for Makkah: Al-Bayt Al-Ateek (The Ancient House), Al-Bayt Al-Haraam (The Sanctified House), Al-Balad Al-Ameen (The City of Security), Um Al-Qura (The Mother of all Cities), Al-Qades…because it purifies people of their sins… Al-Moqadasa, Al-Hatema, Al-Ra's, Al-Balda, Al-Benya, Al-Ka’aba.

 

 

Scientific implications in this ayah:

 

 

 

After long debates that exhausted many scientists over many decades, it was proven in the mid-1960s that earth was completely immersed with water in a certain phase of its creation, and that there was no dry land exposed above the surface of that water. Then by the will of Allah, the bottom of this huge ocean exploded into violent volcanic eruptions that kept on continuously throwing molten lava. The lava accumulated in layers over layers causing a mountain range to form on the bottom of this huge ocean. This mountain range continued to grow and mount until its peak emerged out of the water's surface forming the first part of dry land similar to the various volcanic islands widespread in today's oceans (such as: Japan’s islands, Philippines, Indonesia, Hawaii, etc.). The volcanic activity continued, and this island grew gradually as a result of the successive volcanic eruptions that added new areas to it, causing it to become a great continent called the Mother Continent or Pangaea.

 

 

 

This operation of gradual growth by accumulation is known in Arabic as “Dahw” which is linguistically defined as: the process of extension, expansion and throwing. In fact, this is a precise definition of the earth building processes through volcanic eruptions. After Pangaea was completely formed, it started to break up and rip apart by Allah’s will and eventually fragmented into the seven continents seen now on the earth's surface, which were closer to one another in the past. These fragments then began to shift and drift apart until they reached their present locations, and are in continuous dynamic movement up until now.

 

 

 

This phenomenon in which a part of the ocean turns into dry land, or in which the dry land separates to enclose an ocean or a body of water inside it is called “oceanic crust recycling”, where an ocean turns into dry land as a result of successive volcanic eruptions from beneath the ocean's floor, which causes a part of that floor to rise up to the water's surface in the form of volcanic islands. Such volcanic islands keep in growing gradually till they turn into a continent, and as a result of rifting and chinking parts of this continent it is divided into two entities separated by a long sea such as the Red Sea. This long sea would widen continuously until it turns into an ocean.

 

 

 

Fourteen hundred years ago, it was related from Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) that he said: "The Ka’ba emerged from beneath the water, and then land formed around it." This Hadith was mentioned by Al-Harawy in The Book of Strange Ahadith (3/362). Al-Zamakhshary also included it in his book Al-Fa'ek Men Ghareeb Al-Ahadith (The Very Strange Ahadith) (1/371) because its scientific implications exceeded the knowledge of its era by fourteen hundred years.

 

 

 

This Hadith is supported by another Hadith narrated by Al-Tabarany and Al-Bayhaqy in Al-Sha'b from Ibn Omar (may Allah be pleased with both of them): "It (the Sanctified House) was the first thing to come out over the surface of the water in the time of creating the heavens and the earth as a block, then land formed from beneath it."

 

 

 

Those two Ahadith are considered a miraculous scientific proof supporting the Prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him), and proving that he was connected to Allah through Divine Revelation, and was taught by the Creator of the heavens and earth, because no creature before the middle of the twentieth century realized any of these facts.

 

 

 

This is supported by what we mentioned before, that Makkah is located in the middle of Earth’s mainland. This also indicates that the land beneath the Holy Ka’ba is considered as the oldest piece of the solid rocky surface of the earth. However, no one tried to prove such a fact until now. Muslim scientists should prove this by specifying the general age of rocks around the Ka’ba through the radioactive elements they contain (i.e. Carbon-14), in order to present this evidence to all people – be they Muslims or non-Muslims – as this is considered tangible, documented proof and logical evidence for all people that Muhammad (peace be upon him) is the final Messenger of Allah.þ

 

 

 

These two Ahadith may support Al-Sowday’s interpretation of the holy ayah that can be translated as, *“Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-‘Âlamîn (mankind and jinn)”* that it was the very first house ever existed on Earth's surface….

 

 

 

Praised be Allah who sent the Holy Qur'an with His Knowledge to His final Messenger, and protected it for us in the language in which it was revealed, word by word and letter by letter, to be a warning for mankind and jinn. May Allah praise and send blessings upon the final Messenger Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) to whom this Holy Qur'an was revealed and also upon his family, companions, and followers of his Sunnah and whoever takes the responsibility of his mission until the Day of Judgment. Praise be to Almighty Allah.

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28101Sun, 02 Apr 2006 04:53:36 +0000
See You Not That Allah Sends Down Water (rain) From The Skyhttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/28104-see-you-not-that-allah-sends-down-water-rain-from-the-sky/V.* “See you not that Allah sends down water (rain) from the sky, and We produce therewith fruits of various colors” *(TMQ, Fatir – The Originator: 27)

 

 

 

This ayah appears in the second half of Surat Fatir, which was revealed in Makkah. The Surah gets its name, Fatir (Originator), from the opening ayahs which praise Allah (SWT), the Originator of the heavens and the earth who made the angels His Messengers, as He is Able to do all things. He is most Gracious in the heavens and the earth; He is the most Merciful, the All-mighty and the All-Wise.

 

 

Signs of creation in Surat Fatir:

 

 

 

In Surat Fatir Allah mentions many signs of creation, including the following. The ayahs can be translated as:

 

 

 

1. *And it is Allah Who sends the winds, so that they raise up the clouds, and We drive them to a dead land, and revive therewith the earth after its death. As such (will be) the Resurrection!* (TMQ, Fatir: 9).

 

 

 

2. *And Allah did create you (Adam) from dust, then from Nutfah (male and female discharge semen drops i.e. Adam’s offspring), then He made you pairs (male and female). And no female conceives or gives birth but with His Knowledge. And no aged man is granted a length of life nor is a part cut off from his life (or another man’s life), but is in a Book (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfûz) Surely, that is easy for Allah. And the two seas (kinds of water) are not alike: this is palatable, sweet and pleasant to drink, and that is salt and bitter. And from them both you eat fresh tender meat (fish), and derive the ornaments that you wear. And you see the ships cleaving (the sea-water as they sail through it), that you may seek of His Bounty, and that you may give thanks. He merges the night into the day (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the night is added to the hours of the day), and He merges the day into the night (i.e. the decrease in the hours of the day is added to the hours of the night). And He has subjected the sun and the moon: each runs its course for a term appointed. Such is Allâh, your Lord; His is the kingdom. And those, whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him, own not even a Qitmîr (the thin membrane over the date-stone).* (TMQ, Fatir: 11-13).

 

 

 

3. *See you not that Allah sends down water (rain) from the sky, and We produce therewith fruits of various colors, and among the mountains are streaks white and red, of varying colors and (others) very black. And likewise of men and Ad-Dawâbb [moving (living) animals, beasts], and cattle, are of various colors. It is only those who have knowledge among His slaves that fear Allah. Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, Oft-Forgiving.* (TMQ, Fatir: 27, 28).

 

 

 

4. *Verily! Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places, and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that could grasp them after Him. Truly, He is Ever Most Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving.* (TMQ, Fatir: 41).

 

Each of the signs mentioned in these ayahs need to be contemplated and considered separately, thus I will limit this discussion to the first part of ayah 27 of this chapter.

 

 

 

I shall start with a brief review of the comments made by a number of scholars commenting on this ayah* “See you not that Allah sends down water (rain) from the sky, and We produce therewith fruits of various colors.”* (TMQ, Fatir: 27).

 

 

Interpretation of this ayah by some scholars

 

 

 

Fi Zilal Al-Qur’an (In the Shade of the Qur’an) states, “This is only one of the spectacular implications about creation proving the divine origin of this scripture. This particular implication takes in the whole of the earth, including its colors and hues, whether they are found in fruits, mountains, people or animals. It basically encompasses everything on earth and overwhelms the heart with this divine infusion of colors; from the rainfall to the harvest of fruits of different colors. As Allah says what can be translated as, *“We produce therewith fruits of various colors”.*

 

 

 

The color of fruit covers a wide range of shades that no artist could ever create. There is no such thing as a fruit species of identical color, nor do two pieces of fruit from the same tree have exactly the same color. On closer inspection, we would see there is a slight difference in the color of the two”.

 

 

Scientific implications in this ayah

 

 

Fruits and botany

 

 

 

The fruit of flowering plants is the fully developed ovary which carries the seeds. It is not affected by changes in the environment around it.

 

 

 

There are different classifications of flowering plants, depending on their fruit structures: some plants have only either male or female reproductive organs and others have both male and female reproductive organs. When the flower is fertilized, the male part merges with the female one. Once they have successfully merged, a plant embryo forms inside the seeds where it is surrounded by the nourishment it requires to grow and is enclosed by a protective shell. Once the fertilized ovum, the seeds or the individual seed it holds inside are fully grown, the tissues of the ovary start to expand. Sometimes other tissues in the flower expand as well, resulting in fruit formation. In order to form the fruit skin, which appears right after the flower petals start to fall, the ovary wall may thicken, harden or remain delicate.

 

 

 

In most flowering plants, after the flower is fertilized and the fruit is formed, other organs start to wither. There are, however, a few exceptions.

 

 

 

The main function of the fruit is to protect the plant’s embryos inside the seeds, providing them with the nourishment they require to grow, enabling these seeds to spread after the fruit ripens or is consumed by people or animals who then discard them on the ground where they start to grow again. Unconsumed fruit may rot or spontaneously open in order to release the seeds which are then carried by the wind, water, man or animals to distant places in order to propagate the plant species.

 

 

The difference in the colors of fruits means that they are of different types:

 

 

 

Commenting on Allah’s words that can be translated as,* (We produce therewith fruits of various colors)*, Az-Zamakhshari said: “this difference in colors includes differences in types and shapes”. The different types of fruits are too numerous to count, although we may categorize them hierarchically as follows:

 

 

 

i. Simple fruits

 

 

 

These are fruits that develop essentially from a single ovary in a single flower, either from one carpel or from many carpels. Each of these simple fruits contains the embryo of the plant which is surrounded by the nourishment that will suffice it until it is ripe. The remainder is saved for future germinations. The embryo is often surrounded by a number of protective membranes. The embryo, the nourishment surrounding it and the protective coverings are collectively known as the seed or the stone. These embryos stored inside the seeds, pits or stones of plants exist by the will of Allah.

 

 

 

Simple fruits are of two types: fleshy and dry. In the former, the embryo is surrounded by three layers: from the inside out they are, a ligneous covering surrounding the seed (or the stone) called the endocarp, a mesocarp, the fleshy covering of the endocarp; this covering is the edible part of the fruit and finally, a delicate outer skin covering the whole fruit which can become thick and waxy when the fruit has fully ripened. These sorts of fruits, such as apricots, peaches, plums, cherry olives, etc., are often called ‘drupes’.

 

 

 

Some simple fleshy fruits are known as ‘pepos’. In this type of fruit, the three layers protecting the embryo maintain their softness even after the fruit is ripe, such as the cucumber, whereas in grapes and tomatoes, the seed coverings are hard. Pepo fruits are of a sebaceous nature; they have numerous seeds inserted within the endocarp substance of the fruit, such as melons, watermelons, oranges and the likes.

 

 

 

Sometimes, organs other than the ovary, such as the receptacle, calyx, the stem or carpels assist in forming the fruit. These fruits can be simple like apples, pears or quinces. In these plants, the receptacle tissue develops and becomes the edible part of the fruit. These are simple accessory fruits because the edible part is the developed receptacle of the flower. These fruits can also be complex as will be mentioned later.

 

 

 

As for the simple dry fruits, the membranes surrounding the embryo are all dry, and the fruits are either dehiscent (they split open when mature) or indehiscent. The castor-oil plant has dehiscent fruit. There is also the primulaceae fruit, which opens in the form of a lid covering a capsule or in the form of pores that penetrate the fruit wall such as the poppy seed, carnation fruit which opens in the form of a capsule with intertwined teeth, cotton fruit with two or more carpels and violets which have sharp, cutting edges. Some of them open on one side lengthwise (brambles) and some of them open on both sides, like vegetables, which is more common. Some take the shape of the mustard family fruits, like watercress and gillyflowers.

 

 

 

As for indehiscent fruits or simple dry fruits, the exocarp of the fruit remains closed and the seeds cannot be exposed unless the wall of the fruit splits or decays. The wall could be of wood, such as hazelnuts, almonds, walnuts, and pecans. Sometime the wall of the fruit is attached to the seed, as one finds in wheat. The outer layer is sometimes leathery and is not joined with the seed as is the case of roses.

 

 

 

ii. Multiple Fruits

 

 

 

These fruits consist of the matured ovaries of several to many flowers united in a cluster. Among this group we have strawberries, raspberries and custard apples.

 

 

 

iii. Aggregate Fruits

 

 

 

This group contains fruits that develop from multiple flowers aggregated over the surface of a single receptacle. These complex fruits contain leaves, stems, and ovaries that contain the plant embryos. Examples of these compound fruits are figs, berries, sycamores and pineapples. They are considered to be “false” fruits because the fruit is formed by a combination of many parts of the flower along with the ovaries.

 

 

 

The term “fruit” can be expanded to include any part of the plant that can be consumed without the flower, for example, roots such as carrots and turnips, tubercles such as potatoes and yams, stems such as sugar canes and reeds and leaves such as mint, watercress and parsley.

 

 

 

Fruits, whether coming from real flowers, non-real flowers or from no flowers are the main sources of food for human beings and for herbivore animals that people raise to benefit from their milk, meat, fat and skin. These fruits are an important source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, organic acids, oils, fats, wax, medicine and dyes. They are also an important source for the fibers used in the manufacture of fabrics like cotton.

 

 

The difference in the colors of fruits shows the difference in their pigmentation

 

 

 

Just as fruits differ in their growth patterns, they differ also in their colors, smell and taste. These differences are a result of their chemical composition, their natural characteristics and the amounts of nutrients and water they contain. This is a result of the ability that Allah (SWT) has given to each plant to use a prescribed amount of elements and components in the earth from the ground in which it grows.

 

 

 

The internal and external colors of fruit differ distinctively; this is due to the different ratios of pigments that each contains in its skin and inside the fruit.

 

 

 

These plant pigments are made up of primary and secondary colors; the final color of the fruit, internally and externally, depends on the ratios of these pigments. With the different combinations of these ratios, the number of colors of fruits is almost infinite.

 

 

 

The Basic Plant Pigmentation Group

 

 

 

This group comprises many shades of pigments that can be classified as follows:

 

(1) Green Pigments: known as chlorophyll, they provide the different tones of green in all green plants. They are considered the most important pigment in plants due to their role in the process of photosynthesis. They are found in leaves and concentrated in the form of very tiny plastids. They attract the sun rays and use it to dissolve water (rising to the leaves with the nutritional fluids extracted from the soil by capillarity) and carbon dioxide (absorbed by the plants). They are broken down to form the main elements in plants. These elements are then transformed into carbohydrates and sugars, releasing oxygen into the air. This process, known as photosynthesis, produces most of the energy needed by the plant and is usually stored in the form of chemical compounds and carbohydrates needed by the plant. These carbohydrates are also vital for the lives of people and animals. The green plastids usually include a number of other pigments (as well as green ones); when the green pigments decrease in number, these other hidden pigments show up and that is how green plastids change into colored plastids. There are also plastids with no pigments which help to store nutritional substances like carbohydrates, proteins and fats (needed by plants for vitality and fruit growth). The chlorophyll molecule is formed by a ring of carbon and nitrogen molecules around an atom of magnesium and a long chain of hydrogen molecules.

 

 

 

(2) Yellow Pigments: known as carotinoids. They give plants various shades of yellow coloring. They are a group of carbohydrates that have many chains, starting with yellow and ending with brown. The most famous of these is the yellow pigment known as carotene, which is formed of four carbon atoms and 56 hydrogen atoms.

 

 

 

(3) Red Pigments: known as phycobilins, they give plants various tones of red coloring. They are a group of carbohydrates that have many chains made partially of proteins and carotinoids that, in turn, have long chains of carbon together with molecules of chlorophyll starting with bright red and ending with deep violet. The most famous of these are phycoarthrin (red) and phycocyanin (a shade between indigo and violet). Fruit, in general, start off green in color and as they approach maturity, the green starts to clear away gradually and is replaced by the natural color of the fruit itself. This color is naturally dependent on the amount of pigment and the chemical formation of the plant, especially in the exocarp of each fruit.

 

 

 

By the time fruits reach maturity, the green pigment fades away gradually or totally. Fruits then start to acquire their natural color. Fruits such as citrus fruit, apricots, apples and yellow plums acquire different shades of yellow. Fruits such as strawberries, cherries, red plums and red apples acquire varying shades of red. Dates, for instance, start off green and then become yellow, orange or red; when ripe, the exocarp becomes brown or black. Mangoes are green to start off with and change as they mature to either yellow or orange or remain green as they originally were. Berries start out green or white, then mature into various shades of white, red, black, etc.

 

 

 

Supplementary Plant Pigmentation Groups

 

 

 

In addition to the basic group of pigments, there is another group of pigments known as “sensor pigments”. These pigments are present in smaller amounts in plant tissues than the basic pigments. Yet, they play a fundamental role in the life of plants; among them are:

 

(1) The group of pigments affecting the overall color of the plant, the phytochrome pigment group.

 

 

 

(2) The group of invisible pigments, known as the cryptochrome pigment group.

 

 

 

(3) The group of pigments sensitive to ultraviolet rays, known as the ultraviolet photosensor pigment group. Such pigments are present in plants like sunflowers. They play an important role in the life of the plant. They also mix with other basic pigments (in varying amounts) to provide unlimited numbers of colors for flowers and fruits and, in some cases, leaves.

 

 

 

The role of pigments (basic and supplementary) is not limited to providing color to flowers and fruits as each of these pigments has a role directly related to what happens inside plant cells and tissues, including vital chemical reactions such as photosynthesis and sensation in plants. They have many other functions of which we are unaware. This is a sign of Allah’s divine ability to give plants wonderful colors to attract insects that help in fertilization and pollination. They are also attractive to people and animals who take them, eat them and throw their seeds on the ground, allowing the plant to grow anew. This process continues eternally in a cycle that will end only when Allah wills it to.

 

 

 

The ayah we have discussed here started by mentioning the water falling to the earth, showing the role of this magnificent fluid in dissolving the many elements and compounds found in the earth to make them fit for the nourishment and growth of plants.

 

 

 

Mention of the different colors and pigments shows Allah’s supreme ability to give these plants a special DNA code that is suitable for every single plant so that it chooses suitable compounds that are dissolved in the water, so that each flower or fruit is of the right color, even though they all grow in the same soil and are irrigated by the same water. These facts have only been discovered recently in the last century and have only been understood in the last few decades. However, they have been mentioned in the Qur’an, which was revealed more than fourteen centuries ago to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), to a nation of people who were mostly illiterate, providing clear evidence that such words can never originate from a man but rather from a Creator who revealed them and preserved them in the form in which they were first revealed; this form will remain unaltered until the Day of Judgment as confirmed in Allah’s words that can be translated as, *“Verily, We, it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Qur’ân) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption)” *(TMQ, 15:9).

 

We thank Allah for the blessing of Islam and the Qur’an, from now until eternity. May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon his Prophet, Muhammad, his family, his companions and his followers until the Day of Judgment.

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28104Sun, 02 Apr 2006 04:57:01 +0000
Created The Heavens And The Earth In Six Dayshttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/28096-created-the-heavens-and-the-earth-in-six-days/“Indeed your Lord is Allâh, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He Rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the Throne (in a manner that uniquely suits His Majesty).”

 

(TMQ, al-Araf - The Heights 7:54)

 

 

 

The fact that the universe was created in six days was mentioned in the Holy Qur’an in eight verses where Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as:

 

 

 

1. Surat al-Araf (The Heights)

 

TMQ 54: *“Indeed your Lord is Allâh, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the Throne (in a manner that uniquely suits His Majesty). He brings the night as a veil over the day, seeking it continuously without delay, and (He created) the sun, the moon and the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, to Him is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed is Allâh, the Lord of the ‘Âlamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists)!”*

 

2. Surat Yunus (Jonah)

 

TMQ 3:*"Surely, your Lord is Allâh Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days and then rose and Dominated (Istawâ ) over the Throne (in a manner that uniquely suits His Majesty), disposing the affair of all things. No intercessor (can plead with Him) except after His Leave. That is Allâh, your Lord; so worship Him (Alone). Then, will you not remember"*

 

 

 

3. Surat Hud (Prophet Hud)

 

TMQ 7: *"And it is He, Who has created the heavens and the earth in six Days and His Throne was on the water, that He might try you to know which of you is the best in deeds. …"*

 

 

 

4. Surat al-Furqan (The Criterion)

 

TMQ 59: *"(Allah) Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six Days. Then He Rose and Dominated (Istawâ ) over the Throne (in a manner that uniquely suits His Majesty). The Most Gracious (Allâh)! Ask Him (O Prophet Muhammad - pbuh), as He is Al-Khabîr (The All-Knower of everything)"*.

 

 

 

5. Surat as-Sajdah (Prostration)

 

TMQ 4: *"Allâh it is He Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them in six Days. Then He Rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the Throne (in a manner that uniquely suits His Majesty). You (mankind) have none, besides Him, as a Walî (protector or helper) or an intercessor. Will you not then remember (or receive admonition)"*

 

 

 

6. Sûrat Fussilat (They are Explained in detail)

 

TMQ 9: Say (O Prophet Muhammad - pbuh): *"Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days? And you set up rivals (in worship) with Him? That is the Lord of the ‘Âlamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists)"*. 10. *" He placed therein (i.e. the earth) firm mountains from above, and He blessed it, and assessed therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four equal Days (i.e. all these four days were equal in the length of time) for all those who would ask (about its creation)."* 11. *"Then He Rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the heaven when it was smoke, and Said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly."* 12. *"Then He finished from their creation as seven heavens in two Days and He instilled in each heaven its affair. And We (Allah) adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as guards (from the devils by using them as missiles against them). Such is the Decree of Him the All-Mighty, the All-Knower."*

 

 

 

7. Surat Qaf (a letter of the Arabic alphabet corresponding to the letter “L”)

 

TMQ 38: *"And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched Us."*

 

 

 

8. Surat al-Hadid (Iron)

 

TMQ 4: *"It is He Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days and then Rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the Throne (in a manner that uniquely suits His Majesty). He knows what goes into the earth and what comes forth from it, and what descends from the heaven and what ascends thereto. And He is with you (by His Knowledge) wherever you may be. And Allâh is the All-Seer of what you do."*

 

 

 

The majority of scholars who have interpreted the meanings of the Qur’an have agreed that the creation of the heavens and earth in six days came on six stages, or six incidents, or six phases, or consecutive cosmic events. The lengths of which are only known to Allah. They cannot be like our days on earth because the earth was not created yet. That’s why these days were not depicted by the Qur’an description “of what you reckon” that came in many other verses of the Qur’an to indicate our days on earth.

 

 

Significance of the word “yaum: day” in the Holy Qur’an

 

The word “day” in addition to its derivatives were mentioned 475 times in the Qur’an; of these it came as “al-yaum: today – this day” 349 times, as “yauman: days” 16 times, which makes a total of 365 times (same number of days per year). It also came as “yaumakum: your days”, “yaumahum: their days”, “yaumayn: two days”, “ayyam: many days”, “ayyaman: few days” 109 times, to indicate specific incidents or specific numbers of days. The two terms “yauma’idhin: that day” and “yauma’idh: on that day” to indicate a specific time.

 

 

 

In the Arabic language the word “yaum: day” (plural, ayyam: days) is used to denote the period between two consecutive transits of the sun. In other words, it denotes daytime between two consecutive nights. It also denotes both day and night times (and what’s known as a full day or the “Mean Solar Day”. It is also the period during which the earth travels a full turn round its axis relative to the sun. Further, it is the time span between two consecutive sunsets or sunrises totaling to 24 full hours.

 

 

 

In Arabic also the phrase “since the first days of...” denotes the first days of any specific date or time. Sometimes they use the word “yaum: day” to denote “troubled times” for an individual or for a group of people, like saying: “a day like the days of Aad” ,“a day like the days of Thamud”, “a day like the days of the Arabs”, “a day in lifetime”.

 

 

 

“Day” can be used to denote a certain span of time, no matter what its length. That means that the word “day” from the linguistic point of view is a generic term that varies in its significance according to the context it is placed in.

 

 

 

The word “day” came in Qur’an with all these meanings... it came meaning “daytime” in this verse of the Qur’an, that can translated as,

 

 

 

Surat al-Baqarah (The Cow)

 

TMQ 196. *“…but if he cannot afford it, he should observe Saum (fasting) three days during the Hajj…”*

 

 

 

and this verse that can be translated as,

 

 

 

Sûrat Al-Hâqqah (The Inevitable)

 

TMQ 7. *"Which Allâh imposed on them for seven nights and eight days in succession …"*

 

 

 

It came as the typical day of planet earth (the interval earth takes to travel round its axis facing the sun in 24 hours), as in the verse that can be translated as,

 

 

 

Sûrat Al-Baqarah (The Cow)

 

TMQ 203. *"And remember Allâh during the appointed Days. But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on him, if his aim is to do good and obey Allâh …"*

 

 

 

It also came as a specific day of the week as in the verse that can be translated as,

 

 

 

Sûrat Al-Jumu‘ah (Friday)

 

TMQ 9. *"O you who believe (Muslims)! When the call is proclaimed for the Salât (prayer) on Friday (Jumu‘ah prayer), come to the remembrance of Allâh and leave your trading and business. That is better for you if you did but know!"*

 

 

 

 

 

Also in the verse that can be translated as,

 

 

 

Surat al-Araf (The Heights)

 

TMQ 163. *"And ask them (O Muhammad - pbuh) about the town that was by the sea; when they transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday): when their fish came to them openly on the Sabbath day, and did not come to them on the day they had no Sabbath. Thus We afflicted them, for they used to rebel against Allâh’s Command (disobey Allâh)."*

 

 

 

It also came to denote a specific day of the year like the day of the Hajj (the day of Arafa – or the ninth day of Dhul-Hijjah).

 

 

 

It also came to denote a specific incident in history like: “the day of the Festival”, “the day of overshadowing gloom”, “the day of testing”, “the day of Hunain”, “the day of disaster”, “the day of Decision”

 

 

 

It came to denote certain signs of destroying the cosmic system before the Day of Judgment like: “the Day when the earth and the mountains will be in violent shake”, “the Day when the sky will bring forth a kind of smoke plainly visible”, “the Day when the heavens will be in dreadful commotion”

 

 

 

It came to denote a day from the days of Allah whose span would be beyond our grasp or realization. To make us realize its significance it was compared to our own years in addition to the Qur’anic description “of what you reckon”, like in the verse that can be translated as,

 

 

 

Sûrat Al-Hajj (The Pilgrimage)

 

TMQ 47. *"And they ask you to hasten on the torment! And Allâh fails not His Promise. And verily, a day with your Lord is as a thousand years of what you reckon."*

 

 

 

Allah (Exalted be He) says what can be translated as,

 

 

 

Sûrat As-Sajdah (The Prostration)

 

TMQ 5. *"He manages and regulates (every) affair from the heavens to the earth; then everything will go up to Him, in one Day, the span whereof is a thousand years of what you reckon (on earth)."*

 

 

 

“Day” came in the Qur’an as meaning: phase, stage, incident or cosmic event in verses like: (Surat al-Araf - verse 7, Surat Yunus – verse 3, Surat Hud – verse 7, Surat al-Furqan – verse 59, Surat as-Sajdah – verse 4, Surat Qaf – verse 38 and Surat al-Hadid – verse 4).

 

 

 

It also came as meaning the “day of judgment” in different utterances and in different contexts like:

 

* The Day of Requital (yaumud-een)

* The Day of Resurrection (yaumuq-qiama)

* The Hour (yaumus-saa’)

* The Day of Sorting Out (yaumul-fasl)

* The Day of Judgment (yaumul-hisab)

* The Day of Assembly (yaumuj-jame’)

* The Day of Mutual Meeting (yaumut-taq’)

* The Day when there will be mutual calling and wailing (yaumut-tana’d)

* The Day that is ever drawing (yaumul-azefa)

* The day of Testimony (yaumul-ash’had)

* The Day of Distress (yaumul-hasra)

* The Day of mutual loss and gain (yaumul-taghabun)

* The Day whereof Warning had been given (yaumul-wae’id)

* The day of Resurrection from the graves (yaumul-khuruj)

* The day of eternal life (yaumul-khulud)

 

 

.. and many other meanings denoting the day of resurrection, judgment and eternal life.

 

 

Significance of the word “day” in Astronomy

 

The Mean Solar Day, stands for the interval where the earth completes a full turn round its axis relative to the sun. In our times this interval is estimated by 24 hours, shared between both daytime and night time. As for the Sidereal Day (which is about 3 minutes and 56 seconds less than the Solar Day) it can be measured as the interval the interval between two passages of a given star across the observer’s meridian. The small difference between the intervals of both days is due to the fact that while the earth completes a full turn round its axis relative to the sun, it would have covered a distance in its orbit around the sun that could be estimated by 1/365 of the overall length of the orbit’s circumference.

 

 

 

Due to the fact that the earth and all the other celestial bodies in the heavens move in varied speeds and round varied axes... and due to the fact that each planet has its own physical and orbital elements. Hence, the lengths of these axial and orbital periods would vary from one planet to the other. Consequently, the intervals of day's length and year's length on each planet would greatly vary from one to the other. So a day length for the planets of the solar system would vary between 58 earth-days (in the nearest planet to the sun, namely, Mercury), to 243 days on planet Venus, to 24 hours on planet earth (divided between the daytime and night time like all planets), to 24 hours and 37 minutes on planet Mars, to 9 hours and 53 minutes on planet Jupiter, to 10 hours - 14 minutes and 24 seconds on planet Saturn, to 17 hours and 14 minutes on planet Uranus, to 16 hours and 6 minutes on planet Neptune.

 

 

 

Also the time span of each year would vary from one planet of the solar system planets to the other depending on the distance of its orbit and the speed in which it covers this distance. For instance, the orbital motion of Mercury round the sun can be estimated by 88 earth-days, whereas that of Venus can be estimated by 224.7 earth-days and that of earth can be estimated by 365.256 days. That of Mars can be estimated by 686.98 earth-days, that of Jupiter can be estimated by 11.86 earth-years and that of Saturn can be estimated by 29.46 earth-years. On the other hand, that of Uranus can be estimated by 84.07 earth-years, that of Neptune can be estimated by 164.81 earth-years and that of Pluto can be estimated by 248.53 earth-years. Whereas the sun completes one full turn round its axis in 25 earth-days. It further covers a full rotation round the galactic center in 225 million earth-years.

 

 

 

The solar system is but a minute spot in our galaxy (the Milky Way) which in turn is but one galaxy among the local galactic group cluster which in turn constitute but a minute spot of the greater galactic cluster. This process of being a part of a bigger form goes on till infinity in a universe that has not been yet realized. All of which are constantly moving in the nearest heaven that has been adorned by Allah (Blessed and Exalted be He) with the stars. The nearest heaven, in turn, is constantly moving within the six other heaven.. and truthful is Allah SWT as He says what can be translated as, *“And verily, a day with your Lord is as a thousand years of what you reckon.”* Surat Al-Hajj - 22:47

 

 

 

Allah (Exalted be He) says what can be translated as, *“in one Day, the span whereof is a thousand years of what you reckon (on earth)”* Surat as-Sajdah - 32:5

 

Allah also says what can be translated as, * “The angels and the Rûh [Jibrîl (Gabriel)] ascend to Him in a Day the measure whereof is fifty thousand years”* Surat Al-Ma‘ârij - (The Ways Of Ascent) 70:4.

 

 

The theory of relativity and time

 

In the past, Arabs used distance to denote time like: a one-month walk, a one-week walk or a day’s walk... usually walking in this context meant riding camels or walking on foot. In the theory of relativity time is used like the fourth dimension along with the other three known dimensions. One of the ancient Muslim Sufis (Mohei el-Deen Ibn al-Arabi) has surpassed Albert Einstein by hundreds of years when he stated the fact that the universe in an abstract existence when it comes to both: place and time. He also preceded him in linking the convexity of the universe to the convexity of time. All of these issues are considered nowadays to be of the most important results of the general theory of relativity. The Quranic verses describing the “day” as “a thousands years of what you reckon” and in another verse as “fifty thousand years of what you reckon” could be taken as the base of the theory of relativity. Not just that, but the Qur’an has also mentioned the speed of light in Allah’s saying (Exalted be He) says what can be translated as,

 

 

 

Sûrat An-Naml - (The Ants) TMQ 40. *"One with who was knowledge of the Scripture said: "I will bring it to you within the blink of an eye!"*

 

 

 

Ibn al-Arabi has used the light year in the same concept in which it is used nowadays in astronomy and in view of this very same verse mentioned above. At the wake of the century Albert Einstein announced both the special and the general theory of relativity in 1905 and 1915.

 

 

 

The general theory of relativity is based on a postulate that gravity is equivalent to acceleration and it described gravity as a curve caused by mass and energy (and both are two faces for the same coin), in a four-dimensioned universe. The special theory of relativity is based on two basic postulates:

 

1. That the laws of physics are constant on any still body or any body moving at a constant speed.

2. The speed of light in space remains constant regardless of the speed of the source it started from or the speed of its viewer. It is an absolute speed in any case. So the light coming from a lamp fixed in a train would spread at the same speed whether this train is approaching the viewer or moving away from him.

 

 

 

These two hypotheses aim at having the physical laws constant (mechanic and electromagnetic) whether the body they are being measure at is still or moving at a constant speed. This is because motion and stillness are both inconstant in the observed universe, meaning that everything connected to the universe is relative. The sole exception to that is the speed of light because it is constant to the outside viewer and it isn’t affected by both the viewer and the source of the light. The speed of light has been experimentally estimated to be 299792.5 kilometers/second in space.

 

 

 

The curvature of a beam of light (the curve in its passage) between the sky and the earth has been detected in 1919 and it was proven that the whole universe (matter & energy) is in a curvature and that all forms of matter and energy can never move in straight lines in the universe. Glory be to Allah who mentioned in the Holy Qur’an (1400 years ago) the movement in the sky with the term “uruj: ascending in a curved path” in seven different verses.

 

 

 

The constant speed of light refuted the old assumption that time is absolute. Consequently, this refutes the assumption that this universe is self-ruled. In other words, any absolute ruler for this universe has to be from outside this universe not from within it. This is called the authority of the sole Ruler and Creator (swt). It has been proven that the universe is under constant expansion and if we retreat in time with this expansion we will have to reach an extremely minute point with no dimensions and with an infinite mass and energy. This state that is very close to non-existence (al-ratq’: the single entity of the first material that formed the universe) has exploded by order of the Creator and from this explosion came both: matter and energy (two faces for the same coin), from it also came: time and place (two consecutive existences). All of these were intertwined within themselves and at the same time with the universe and all the other creatures on it.. all of which came from non-existence to existence, then they will go to non-existence then existence again. The creator (swt) is above and surrounding all that: time (past, present and future), not restricted by any place, nor any time.. because He created all that. He is neither formed from matter nor energy, because He (swt) is the creator of all. He is not like any of His creations.. and non of His creations can be like Him.. He is indeed as He has described Himself in what can be translated as,

 

 

 

Sûrat Ash-Shûra - (The Consultation) TMQ 11. …*" There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer."*

 

 

 

The theory of relativity clarified the fact that the mass of any moving body increases by the increase of its speed and diminishes (i.e. gets shorter) in the same direction of its movement. When it reaches the speed of light, it totally vanished within itself to be transformed into energy according to this equation:

 

 

 

E = MC

 

[where E is (energy), M is (mass of the body moving at the speed of light), C is (the speed of light)]

 

 

 

The theory explains that apart from the speed of light, any TIME in the observed part of the universe, is considered to be a relative time depending on the speed of the moving body. The more its speed increases (compared to any other body) the less the impact of time on it. In other words, the percentage between the time for a rocket moving in the sky and the time on earth would increase as the speed of this rocket increases. Till this speed reached 99.995% of the speed of light, at that instant a year at this rocket will be equal to 100 years on earth. So TIME on earth is limited to the standards of earth and is connected to PLACE and SPEED (motion). So it is a relative TIME because a moving body would carry its own TIME with it and every celestial body will remain in motion till a known time.. refer to: Sûrat Ar-Ra‘d - (The Thunder) – verse 2 and Sûrat Yâ-Sîn – verse 38

 

this fact 1400 years ago. The deducted amount from these two verses matches those of the calculated speed of light (in vacuum) as internationally agreed (with the accepted margin of deviation). Blessed and Exalted be Allah who send the Qur’an 1400 years ago saying what can be translated as, *“He manages and regulates (every) affair from the heavens to the earth; then everything will go up to Him, in one Day, the span whereof is a thousand years of what you reckon (on earth).”* (TMQ, As-Sajdah:5). And what can be translated as, *“And they ask you to hasten on the torment! And Allâh fails not His Promise. And verily, a day with your Lord is as a thousand years of what you reckon.” *(TMQ, Al-Hajj:47).

 

 

The six days of creation as mentioned in the Qur’an

 

The mention of these six days came in brief in seven verses in the Qur’an, and in detail in four other verses at chapter 41, named by Allah as Sûrat Fussilat (They are Explained in detail). Even the name in itself is a miracle because it gives a glimpse about the fact that this Surah talks in detail about the creation of the heavens and earth. This is taken as flagrant proof on the ability of the Creator, the authenticity of the Holy Qur’an and the message of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), that came with the basics of doctrine and the cornerstone of faith. It further proves, the integrity of the revelation and comes as a warning with the stories of the nations that have been annihilated when they disbelieved their messengers, insisted on disobeying Allah and corrupted earth with their sins. It also came to verify the reward of those who fear Allah and believe in Him, His Message and His messengers.

 

 

 

The verse comprises 11 cosmic signs considered to be magnificent signs of the scientific miracles in Qur’an. The verse is concluded with a promise from Allah to the whole humanity, to the atheists in particular, that close to the Day of Judgment, Allah will reveal some concealed secrets about this universe to all human beings, to assert what came in the Holy Qur’an (that was conveyed to us by the last Prophet, Muhammad, PBUH).

 

 

 

The four verses of Sûrat Fussilat (9-12), reveal the fact that the creation of the primary earth preceded the separation of the primary (gaseous) heaven into seven heavens. So Allah revealed the fact that the earth was created in two days (that’s to say on two stages). A day for the “ratq’: the single entity of the first material that formed the universe“ and a day for the “fatq’: dividing apart this single entity“. It also mentions that Allah has placed the mountains as pegs from above, then He blessed it, and assessed therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four days (that’s to say four consecutive stages). Then He created the heavens in two days (that’s to say, two stages). Allah is the most able, He says to it: "Be," and it is, so this progressiveness is for an important wisdom that we have to realize. From this wisdom man has to grasp the essence of the laws of the Creator in His creation, thus applying them in populating earth and performing his duties as a vicegerent on it.

 

 

 

The reader might be confused, while reading these verses at the first look, into thinking that the creation of earth alone has lasted six days (that’s to say six stages). In addition to two more days for the creation of the heavens, this will make at the end a total of eight days for the creation of the heavens and earth. This would have clashed with many other verses stating that the creation of the heavens and earth lasted for six days (six stages). Yet, because the creation of heavens and earth was a single intertwined mission this would make the two days in which the earth was created to be the two same days in which the seven heavens were created. This is because the order that came from Allah at the end of these four verses was for both the earth and the heavens, in what can be translated as, *“ Then He Rose and Dominated(Istawâ) over the heaven when it was smoke, and Said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly.” *(TMQ, Fussilat:11).

 

 

 

Most Qur’an commentators have however disagreed with this explanation because they considered the two days in which the earth was created inclusive in the four days of: placing the mountains, blessing and assessing sustenance. On the other hand, they all agree that the conjunction in this verse (then) doesn’t denote sequence together with the time-delay, but denotes the interval needed for the process of “Istiwâ: rising and dominating over the Throne in a manner that uniquely suits Allah’s Majesty” and separation of the seven heavens from the primary smoky heaven. This is because the conjunction (then) here would mean something that has taken place in a later interval. To prove this further, Allah says in Sûrat An-Nâzi‘ât - (Those Who Pull Out) what can be translated as,

 

 

 

TMQ 27.*" Are you more difficult to create or is the heaven that He constructed?"* TMQ 28. *"He raised its height, and has perfected it."* TMQ 29. *"Its night He covers with darkness and its forenoon He brings out (with light)."* TMQ 30. *"And after that He spread the earth,"* TMQ 31. *"And brought forth (from it) its water and its pasture. "*TMQ 32. *"And the mountains He has fixed firmly, "*TMQ 33.*" (To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle."*

 

 

 

This proves that the four stages of: placing the mountains, blessing and assessing sustenance, stand for the process of “dahu’: spreading the earth”. In other words, bringing out the earths’ water and pasture by creating its atmosphere and oceans of water. So the two days in which the earth was creates (the very same days in which the heavens were created) were the same two days in which was created the elements of the primary earth within the smoky heaven. Listen to Allah saying in Surat Fussilat, what can be translated as,

 

TMQ 11. *"Then He Rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the heaven when it was smoke, and Said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly."* TMQ 12. *"Then He finished from their creation as seven heavens in two Days and He instilled in each heaven its affair. And We (Allah) adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as guards (from the devils by using them as missiles against them). Such is the Decree of Him the All-Mighty, the All-Knower."*

 

 

 

To prove this further Allah says in Sûrat Al-Baqarah - (The Cow) what can be translated as,

 

TMQ 29. *"It is He, Who has created for you all what is on earth. Then He rose over (Istawâ) towards the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything."*

 

 

 

The word “created” here stands for estimating the elements of the earth.

 

 

 

The six days of creation as regards to applied sciences:

 

 

 

1) Applied science view the creation of universe as follows: The stage of the primary cosmic egg, from which all the creation has started (“ratq’: the single entity of the first material that formed the universe“).

 

2) Explosion of the primary cosmic egg (“fatq’: dividing apart this single entity) or the smoky stage and the start of expansion.

 

3) The stage of creating the different elements in the smoky universe through the creation of matter and anti-matter, the creation of hydrogen atoms, Helium and some Lithium.

 

4) The separation of nebulae, each of which started to condense by the force of gravity forming the stars, the sun, the earth and the rest of the celestial bodies.

 

5) The stage of spreading the earth, forming its atmosphere, oceans of water and rocks. Then the sheets of rocks started moving to form the oceans, the continents, the mountains and the land. Then the water cycle started and the surface of the earth became almost even, with a store of water under its surface.

 

6) The stage of creating life from its simplest forms to its diversified categories.

 

 

 

And Allah knows all about what He created…

 

 

 

Astronomers and astrophysicists estimate the age of the universe to be 10 – 15 billion years. Whereas, geologists estimate the age of this planet to be 4.6 billion years, and this conclusion has been also reached by scientists who analyzed the rocks and the sand they got from the moon, and the age of many other meteors that hit the earth. It seems that the great difference between the age estimated for planet earth and that estimated for the universe is due to the fact that the estimated age for the earth is the age of solidification of its outside crust. Consequently, this age would not include the stages of the primary earth, nor the stages of creating the elements from which this primary earth was formed.

 

 

 

The verses in both Surat al-Baqarah (2:29) and Surat Fussilat (41: 9 – 12) signify the fact that creating the earth has preceded the separation of the primary smoky heaven into seven heavens. It is obvious that the creation here was for the elements of the earth, this was followed by the creation of the earth in the form of a primary planet that was later spread to take the present form. This is because the creation of the heavens and earth is an intertwined inseparable process.

 

 

 

Praise be to Allah, who from above the seven heavens, more than 1400 years ago brought forth these decisive verses in the form of a rebuking, disapproving question to all atheists and disbelievers. The verses can be translated as,

 

TMQ 9. *"Say (O Prophet Muhammad - pbuh): "Do you verily disbelieve in Him Who created the earth in two Days? And you set up rivals with Him (in worship)? That is the Lord of the ‘Âlamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists)."* TMQ 10.*" He placed therein (i.e. the earth) firm mountains from above, and He blessed it, and assessed therein its sustenance (for its dwellers) in four equal Days (i.e. all these four days were equal in the length of time) for all those who would ask (about its creation)."* TMQ 11. *"Then He Rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the heaven when it was smoke, and Said to it and to the earth: "Come both of you willingly or unwillingly." They both said: "We come willingly."* TMQ 12. *"Then He finished from their creation as seven heavens in two Days and He instilled in each heaven its affair. And We (Allah) adorned the nearest (lowest) heaven with lamps (stars) to be an adornment as well as guards (from the devils by using them as missiles against them). Such is the Decree of Him the All-Mighty, the All-Knower.” *(Surrat Fussilat).

 

And also says what can be translated as,

 

TMQ 54:*“Indeed your Lord is Allâh, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He Rose and Dominated (Istawâ) over the Throne (in a manner that uniquely suits His Majesty).”* (Surat al-Araf).

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28096Sun, 02 Apr 2006 04:47:41 +0000
And Indeed We Created Man (adam) Out Of An Extract Of Clayhttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/28105-and-indeed-we-created-man-adam-out-of-an-extract-of-clay/V. *"And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth)." (TMQ, Surat Al-Mu'minun – The Believers: 12)

 

This holy ayah appears in the second tenth of Surat Al-Mu'minun, which is a Makkan Surah. This Surah contains 118 ayahs. It is named in praise of the Mu'minun (Believers), demonstrating some of their merits. The main theme of this holy Surah is faith in Allah (SWT) as One and Only God who is the Self-Sufficient Master that all creatures depend on, and the One who is comparable to none; no one shares His Rule, or claims His Power. It also glorifies Allah and eliminates any description that does not befit His Glory.

 

 

Signs of creation in Surat Al-Mu'minun:

 

 

 

1. The creation of man from an extract of clay.

 

2. The extremely accurate description of the successive stages of embryonic development, and the description of the womb as "a safe lodging" (Al-Mu'minun: 13)

 

3. The creation of the seven skies and the levels in between.

 

4. The rain and how it is sent down as needed then stored under the surface of the earth, which proves that the origin of the subterranean reserves of water is rain.

 

5. The stress on the strong link between sending down rain from the sky and bringing forth plants from the earth along with creating the orchards of palms, grapes, and other fruit trees, in addition to different cropping plants like grain, greens, leaves, stalks and roots.

 

6. The description of olive trees as a source of oil and a relish to the eaters, with emphasis on the olive trees that grow in Mount Sinai in particular.

 

7. The description of the cattle as an example for contemplators, especially getting the milk out of their bellies, their edible meat, and using them for transportation and carrying luggage the same way we use ships; yet with more benefits.

 

8. Mentioning the creation of the sense of hearing before the rest of the senses like eyesight or hearts (comprehending); a fact that has been proved lately by anatomical studies.

 

9. Using the “alternation of night and day” as a slightly implicit signal to the fact that the Earth travels around the sun.

 

 

 

To scientifically explain each one of these issues we need a special session for each of them. Consequently, I will only discuss the first point in the list, which is the creation of man from “an extract of clay” as it appears in the twelfth ayah of the Surah. But, before proceeding I have to survey the views of scholars and their interpretations of the implications of this ayah.

 

 

Interpretations of this ayah by some scholars:

 

 

 

"And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth)." (TMQ, Al-Mu'minun: 12).

 

 

 

· Ibn-Kathir (RA) mentioned what can be summarized as: Allah describes the beginning of creation with Adam who was made from extracts of clay of altered black smooth mud. Ibn-Jarir also said that Adam’s name was derived from the word “mud” because he was created from it. Moreover, Qatada said that Adam came out of mud, hence, he is a creature of the soil. In addition, the Prophet (PBUH) said, "Allah has created Adam from a handful from all earth, so the sons of Adam came similar to earth, some of them are red, white, black and in between; evil, good and in between".

 

· “Safwat At-Tafasir” (The Essence of Interpretations), (may Allah reward its writer) includes an interpretation that the ayah that can be translated as, “And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth)."”, is an answer to an implicit oath in the ayah as if it were to be said as “By Allah, We have created man from an essence and extract taken from mud." Referring to the word “man” in the ayah, Ibn - Abbas said, "He is Adam because he came out of mud".

 

· Other interpretations present a similar view, so I will not mention them to avoid repetition.

 

 

Linguistic implications of the Holy ayah:

 

 

 

Clay (Teen): It is soil mixed with water. It is mentioned in some of the Qur’anic ayahs like: *"and He began the creation of man from clay."* (TMQ, As-Sajda: 7),* "He it is Who has created you from clay:* (TMQ, Al-An'am: 2), *"Shall I prostrate myself to one whom You created from clay?"* (TMQ, Al- Isra': 61), *"And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth)."* (TMQ, Al-Mu'minun: 12), *"O Haman, to bake (bricks out of) clay"* (TMQ, Al-Qasas: 38) (The Arabic verb is Taan: Motayan or Tayana: Tatyeenan, which some linguists may disagree with, and the noun Teena: means natural disposition.)

 

 

 

Extract (Solalah): Means the extract that is taken out in secret; it is what can be drawn out or separated from something else. While Ensal-la and Tasl-lala are two verbs that mean to withdraw from a group in secret, Sal-la or Asal-la (verbs) mean to take something out from its place. Saleel (noun) means the male descendant, and its feminine noun is Saleelah.

 

 

 

Toraab (Soil): It is a solid and tough substance formed from micro particles (very fine grains) in the size of those of clay and silt (1/16 of a millimeter of the grain's diameter, or 00.062 – of a millimeter). Because of their very small size, these particles can be carried by wind for long distances and for long periods, especially in whirlwinds. When the wind slows down, these particles drop to the earth.

 

 

 

Soil is the result of disintegration of rocks via erosion factors, especially chemical weathering of minerals and rocks. It can also be the outcome of volcanic eruptions, drizzles of sea salt, pollen, bacteria, smoke, and ash particles. Soil may merge with some other cosmic particles that come from outside the sphere like meteoric dust and cosmic dust.

 

 

Scientific implications of this Holy ayah:

 

 

 

First: the chemical structure of the human body confirms the relation between man and clay. The human body consists mainly of water (54% to 70% or more) in addition to protein (11% to 17%), fat (14% to 26%), and other several substances and inorganic components (5% to 6%). According to the chemical analysis of the basic substances of the human body, we can see that it is composed of the following elements:

 

 

 

· Oxygen 65%.

 

· Carbon 18%.

 

· Hydrogen 10%.

 

· Nitrogen 3%.

 

· Calcium 1.4%.

 

· Phosphorous 7%.

 

 

 

In addition, there are some less abundant substances like iodine, fluorine, bromine, iron, copper, magnesium, zinc, chrome, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, tin, vanadium, silicon, and aluminum. However, despite their rarity, the shortage of any of these substances may cause an imbalance in the functions of the human body.

 

 

 

The components of the human body correspond in general with the chemical composition of soil when combined with water, i.e. clay. Generally, soil is made of a number of clay minerals that depend in their structure on hydrated aluminum silica, and exceed ten in number. They differ according to the degree of hydration, the percentage of both aluminum and silicon, or through the addition of other substances like magnesium, potassium, etc.

 

 

 

Moreover, clay minerals are combined (mixed) with different proportions of sand grains (quartz), feldspars, mica, iron oxides, and some heavy minerals, in addition to a small percentage of volcanic ashes, sea lime (calcareous) and salt particles, and ash particles that result from various combustive operations. Soil is also mixed with pollen and other plant remnants, bacteria and the remnants of other microorganisms, some remnants of cosmic and meteoritic dust, in addition to several other organic substances from the waste of various living creatures. This combination makes the chemical composition of soil and water very similar to that of the human body.

 

 

 

Soil is fragmented fine-grained sediment. Its granular diameter (clay) does not exceed 1/257 of a millimeter, even if mixed with some granules of silt (the diameter of its granule is 1/16 mm, 1/256 mm) and sand (1/4 – 1/16 mm.)

 

 

 

The proportion of porosity is as high as 70% to 80% in recently formed clay sediments. On the other hand, this proportion decreases to only 13% in old clay (mudstone) rocks, especially in shale. This high proportion of porosity in newly formed clay sediments increases after denudation (weathering) and transformation into soil. Soil pores fill with different ions of other substances, in addition to water, air and micro – wastes of living creatures. If the proportion of water increases, clay transforms into mud. The extraction from which man was created is the substances and compounds dissolving in the water held between the grains of clay metals and cracks that form clay.

 

 

 

Second: Man depends on plants as his main food resource and this confirms the link between humans and clay: The roots of plants absorb the substances and compounds dissolved in the water, which is stored between soil particles. Plants grow and produce different crops that man and several animals (herbivores) eat. Even creatures that eat both meat and plants (like humans), or those that eat meat only (carnivores), live, thrive, and grow depending on this blend absorbed by plants from the space between clay particles, and which turn into clay, and then into mud by watering. That is why Allah (SWT) created plants before animals and humans, because plants are the only means to transform ground substances into food chains, which are necessary for human and animal survival. Indeed, Allah says the truth in His wisely revealed Book more than fourteen centuries ago; He says what can be translated as:

 

- *"And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay"* (TMQ, Al-Mu'minun: 12).

 

- *"Who made everything He has created good, and He began the creation of man from clay"* (TMQ, As-Sajdah: 7).

 

- *"And Allah has brought you forth from the (dust of) earth. Afterwards He will return you into it (the earth), and bring you forth" (again on the Day of Resurrection) *(TMQ, Nuh: 17, 18).

 

- Also His words said by His slave and Messenger Saleh (AS) when he spoke to his people:* "O my people! Worship Allah: you have no other Ilah (God) but Him. He brought you forth from the earth and settled you therein"* (TMQ, Hud: 61)

 

 

 

So said the Prophet, the seal of all Prophets and Messengers, peace be upon them all, that the elements from which man is created gather in a bone at the end of the vertebral column (the coccyx), which he (PBUH) called the “tail-tip of the spinal chord”. According to the Prophet, this bone is in the magnitude of a mustard grain, and does not decay or gets consumed by earth after death. Scientific research has proved the authenticity of this statement: (Hans Spemann, 1935).

 

 

 

The Prophet (PBUH) added that on the Day of Judgment, Allah (SWT) will cause water to descend from the sky and people will sprout from their coccyx, like plants from their seeds.

 

 

 

Third: After death, human bodies start to decompose and transform into clay extracts before they merge with the soil. The relation between the human body and soil with its water content (mud) reasserts by the huge correspondence between their chemical structures. The growth of the human body (from the embryonic stage up to maturity) depends on some ground substances and their dissolved compounds. These substances are stored between the clay particles that form the earth’s soil, which plants transform (by the Mighty power of Allah) into fruits and crops edible for man. They can also be transformed into grass, which is eaten by animals, making food for man. This marvelous food chain, in which plants play an enormous role, originally came out of this clay extract that consists of many substances and compounds absorbed by plant roots. This supports the ayah in which Allah says *"And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay"* (TMQ, Surat Al-Mu'minun: 12).

 

 

 

This truth is also confirmed by the fact that after death and decomposition, the body turns into dust. By reversing this cycle of creation, we will find that it starts with soil combined with water and then turned into mud. The water contained in the mud dissolves the dissolvable substances and compounds of soil. Among the particles of this clay, lies a more special extract (an extract of clay). By vaporizing the solutions that make this extract, its components stay between the particles of clay minerals, so clay stick together and become “sticky clay” (TMQ, As-Saffat: 11). After leaving this sticky clay to dry gradually, it starts to turn black and rotten *“sounding clay of altered black smooth mud”*(TMQ, Al-Hijr: 28), further dryness causes it to become *"sounding clay like the clay of pottery"* (TMQ, Ar-Rahman: 14). Finally, Allah breathes His soul into it so it becomes a man (Adam, father of humans).

 

 

 

When the soul leaves the body, the latter dries until it reaches the state of stone (clay). However, after burial, it starts gradual decomposition; an operation performed by the bacteria, fungi, algae, and viruses that lived within the body during life, and those living in the soil in which it is buried. Gradually, the color of the body changes; the body starts to have a rotten smell, and it becomes “sounding clay of altered black smooth mud.” Then it starts to decay completely and turn into sticky clay. Finally, the body's water content evaporates, and the body becomes part of the soil and merges with it, except for the coccyx that Allah (SWT) preserves with His mighty power until resurrection on the Day of Judgment.

 

 

 

The three arguments above support the reality Allah (SWT) revealed in the Qur’an fourteen centuries ago by saying: “And indeed we created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay.” Those who are taken by the theory of organic evolution argue that this clay is the origin of creation; the origin of the first cell created on earth. The theory also claims that through division and multiplication, this cell gave birth to millions of life forms, where each form is represented by billions of individuals that lived on earth through gradual stages, until they reached the state of humans. Nevertheless, the holy Qur'an confirms that Allah (SWT) is the Creator of all things. Moreover, the genetic code and its complexity prove the necessity of the special creation of each kind. Furthermore, the division of DNA points to the fact that if we review all the reserved DNA of all the billions of humans who live on earth today, those who died, and those who are yet to come until the Day of Judgment, we will find that they all originate from one genetic code found in the body of our father Adam (AS) the moment he was created.

 

Moreover, recent studies in molecular biology have proved the possibility of tracing biological races through mitochondrial DNA, which are micro molecules in the cell's liquid. Their mission is to support the living cell with the energy it needs. The DNA does not participate in the meiosis process for blending the genes of the parents, because it is taken from the mother's ovum only. This way, it would be possible to trace female generations back to great-grandmothers, until we come to the first mother Hawaa (Eve); this part of the mother's DNA does not change except by mutations inherited from a generation of mothers to another.

 

It has been discovered that all humans share one mitochondrial DNA that they have inherited from one grandmother who is the mother of all humanity, whose existence is assumed to have been 200,000 years ago. This scientific fact refutes the “Theory of Evolution” and the superstitions that claim man’s multiple origins; a theory supported by some western anthropologists that shattered humanity in fierce racial struggles based on such devilish ideas.

 

Indeed, Allah says the truth in His wisely revealed Book more than fourteen centuries ago; He says *"It is He Who has created you from a single person(Adam), and has given you a place of residing (on the earth or in your mother’s wombs) and a place of storage (In the earth (in your graves) or in your father’s loins). Indeed, We have explained in detail Our revelations (the Qur’an) for people who understand." * (TMQ, Al-An'am: 98)

 

This truth was discovered by human sciences only two decades ago, which proves that the source of this miraculous knowledge that came in the Qur'an fourteen centuries ago cannot be human, but only divine. Allah with His divine wisdom has blessed us with the Qur'an, and preserved it in its original form and language for more than fourteen centuries, until the day He inherits earth and all its creatures (the Day of Judgment). All the praises and thanks are to Allah for the grace of the Qur'an, for the grace of Islam, and for the grace of sending us our Master, the Most Noble Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Praise and thanks be to Allah for having assured He will preserve His sacred message until the Day of Judgment, so that it remains a reminder of Allah’s voice, and a proof of the delivered message until the Day of Resurrection. Finally, Peace and Blessings be upon our Master, The Most Noble Prophet Muhammad, his family, companions, followers, and the callers for his message. Our last supplication is all the praises and thanks are to Allah, the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinn and all that exists).

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28105Sun, 02 Apr 2006 04:57:52 +0000
And A Tree (olive) That Springs Forth From Mount Sinaihttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/28102-and-a-tree-olive-that-springs-forth-from-mount-sinai/VI.*“And a tree (olive) that springs forth from Mount Sinai, that grows oil, and (it is a) relish for the eaters.”* (TMQ, Al-Mu’minun – The Believers: 20)

 

This is the twentieth ayah of Surat Al-Mu’minun (The Believers) which was revealed in Makkah. The main theme of this Surah is Iman (believing in Allah) and a description of those who believe in the Oneness of Allah (tawhid). The Surah provides proofs and indications of the Oneness of Allah and compares true faith to its antitheses of shirk (polytheism) and kufr (disbelief). The Surah is called Al-Mu’minun in praise of those who believe, asserting their virtues and distinguishing them above those who have been led astray by Shaytan (Satan) into the depths of polytheism, doubt and disbelief in Allah.

Tenets of faith in Surat al-Mu’minun:

 

1. Paradise (Jannah) is real; only the believers (those described in the Surat and after whom the Surah is named) shall inherit and dwell in paradise.

 

2. Allah is the Creator of mankind and the One who determines the embryonic phases one after the other until His creation is fully formed. Allah is the Lord and Owner of everything; man’s creation was not pointless and he shall most definitely return to his Lord.

 

3. All creatures are destined to die.

 

4. The hereafter is real, as is the resurrection, the gathering of mankind and the reckoning of deeds.

 

5. The Prophets, Messengers and all the messages sent by Allah are true.

 

6. There is no God but Allah; all His signs are real. He is the All-Knower of the seen and the unseen. He is the Supreme Lord of the Holy Throne. Associating partners with Allah is disbelief and disbelievers shall never succeed.

 

7. Allah is the best of Providers; it is He who gives life and death and causes the day and night to vary. He is above needing a wife or child, a partner or equal and above any description that does not befit His Majesty.

 

8. One must seek refuge in Allah from the devil.

 

9. There is no return to this world after death except on the Day of Resurrection; the dead are in the barzakh (where the soul remains after death until the Day of Resurrection). At the first blow of the trumpet, every living being will become unconscious and at the second blow, all the dead will be resurrected.

 

10. Those whose good deeds weigh heavily on the balance on the Day of Reckoning are the successful people whereas those whose good deeds are few are those who lose themselves in this life and their eternal abode will be Hell.

 

11. One can only ask for forgiveness and mercy from Allah who is the most merciful.

Signs of creation in Surat al-Mu’minun

 

1. Man was created from clay.

 

2. The successive stages of the development of the human embryo are described in extensive detail.

 

3. Both the male and female reproductive organs are described as being a “safe lodging”.

 

4. The creation of the seven heavens and the barriers between them.

 

5. Rainfall in proportion and its subsequent storage in the ground.

 

6. The sprouting of plant life after it rains, making gardens of palm trees and grapes as well as other plant life.

 

7. The olive tree being described as a tree that provides edible oil; the olive trees that grow in Mount Sinai are mentioned specifically.

 

8. Cattle are described as being an example for men of understanding; how they produce milk, meat and many other benefits.

 

9. Reference is made to the possibility of using both cattle and ships as means of transport.

 

10. Reference is made to the fact that one’s faculty of hearing is created before the faculty of seeing and the heart.

 

11. Reference is made to the rotation of the earth on its axis before of the sun - "the alternation between day and night"

Mention of olives and olive oil in the Holy Qur’an

 

Olives and olive oil are mentioned in the Holy Qur’an in seven occasions. The ayahs in which they were mentioned can be translated as:

 

1. *..And gardens of grapes, and olives, and pomegranates, each similar (in kind) yet different (in variety and taste). Look at the fruits when they begin to bear, and the ripeness thereof. Verily! In these things there are signs for people who believe.* (TMQ, al-An’am:99).

 

2. *And it is He Who produces gardens, trellised and untrellised, and date-palms, and crops of different shape and taste (their fruits and their seeds) and olives and pomegranates, similar (in kind) and different (in taste). Eat of their fruit when they ripen, but pay the due thereof (its Zakat, according to Allah's Orders1/10th or 1/2th) on the day of its harvest, and waste not by extravagance. Verily, He likes not Al-Musrifun (those who waste by extravagance),* (TMQ, al-An’am: 141).

 

3. *With it He causes to grow for you the crops, the olives, the date-palms, the grapes and every kind of fruit. Verily! In this is indeed an evident proof and a manifest sign for people who give thought.* (TMQ, an-Nahl:11)

 

4. *And a tree (olive) that springs forth from Mount Sinai, that grows (produces) oil, and (it is a) relish for eaters.* (TMQ, al-Mu’minun:20).

 

5. *Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The Parable of His Light is as( if there were) a niche and within it a lamp: the lamp is in glass, the glass as it were a brilliant star, lit from a blessed Tree, an olive, neither of the east nor of the west, whose oil is well-nigh luminous, though fire scarce touched it: Light upon Light! God doth guide whom He will to His Light: God doth set forth Parables for men: and God doth know all things.* (TMQ, an-Nur: 35).

 

6. *Then let man look at his food: We pour forth water in abundance. And We split the earth in clefts. And We cause therein the grain to grow, And grapes and clover plants (i.e. green fodder for the cattle), And olives and dates, And gardens dense with many trees, And fruits and herbage, (To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle.* (TMQ, Abasa: 24-32).

 

7. *By the figs and the olives. By Mount of Sinai. And this city of security (Makkah). *(TMQ, at-Tin: 1-3). In this Surah "The Figs"; Allah swears, and He doesn’t need it, by: “the figs, the olives and the Mount of Sinai (the mountain in peninsula of Sinai beside which Moses - peace be upon him - was called) and the city of security (Makkah, the noblest place on earth)”. Allah swore by them all, that He has created man with the inclination to believe in Him, to love goodness and hate evil, to love high moral standards and to hate low manners. Allah made man love observance to reach grades of perfection that would raise him higher than the ranks of angles, only if he observed. Should he deviate from the nature which he has been created for and sink into the humiliation of disbelief, polytheism or aberration and mean morals, he will then be punished by falling deeper into the dungeons of meanness.

 

Figs are mentioned only once in the Qur’an in Surat At-Tin (The Fig).

 

Each of the ayahs mentioned above requires separate research. I shall limit this article to a discussion about ayah 20 of Surat Al-Mu’minun. Before I begin, let us have a quick look at some scholar’s interpretations of this ayah.

 

 

Interpretation of this ayah by some scholars:

 

 

 

Concerning the interpretation of the following ayah: *“And a tree (olive) springs forth from Mount Sinai, that grows (produces) oil, and (it is a) relish for the eaters.”* Al-Mu’minun:20

 

Al-Tabari (May Allah have mercy on him) says: “Tree” refers the olive trees that grow on Mount Sinai, where Moses spoke to Allah. “Springing out” means growing and “oil” and “relish” can be eaten with bread.

 

Ibn-Kathir (May Allah have mercy on him) says: “a tree springing out of Mount Sinai” is the olive tree. “Tur Sinai” is Mount Sinai, where Allah spoke to Moses, and the surrounding mountains on which olive trees grow. The phrase, “produces oil”, means that oil can be extracted from it and “relish” means that it can be eaten with bread. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Eat olive oil and use it as lubricant and lotion, for it comes from a blessed tree”.

 

Said Qutb’s “Fi Zilal Al-Qur’an”, (In the Shade of the Qur’an) states, concerning the ayah, that this is one of the most beneficial trees as it provides oil, food and wood. The closest source of this tree to the Arab world is Mount Sinai, where the blessed valley mentioned in the Qur’an is located; it is for this reason that its source is mentioned especially. The trees that grow there use underground stores of water.

 

In “Safwat al-Bayan”, it says, concerning the part of the ayah that says, “Also a tree springing out of Mount Sinai”, that it is a tree that grows on the mountain known by this name (Sinai) or Al-Munajah (Discourse – as this where Allah conversed with Musa). “Produces oil” means that it bears fruit with high oil content. Oil is that which is pressed out of anything with a high fat content; in this instance, it is “olive oil”. For “relish” the Qur’an used the Arabic term sibgh which refers to something that can be eaten with bread. Olive oil has various uses as an oil, lotion or relish.

 

In “Al-Muntakhab” the author says that, this ayah means that Allah has created this tree whose fruit provides us with oil that can be used as a food, relish and for many other purposes. In a footnote, scholars added a comment that the olive tree is among the many blessings of Allah to mankind mentioned in the ayahs preceding and succeeding this one. It is a perennial tree that can live for hundreds of years continuously yielding olives with little external care required. It is a tree characterized by its constant beauty and verdure. Researchers have also benefited from it as the olive is a highly nutritious fruit with a high protein content. It also contains many minerals such as calcium, iron and phosphorus, all of which are vital nutrients for man. It also contains vitamins such as vitamin A and vitamin B.

 

Medical researchers have listed the numerous benefits of olive oil; it is beneficial for the digestive system, the liver and is better than all other kinds of oils (of animal or plant origin) as it does not affect the circulatory system or capillaries as other oils do. It is also a good moisturizer that relieves the skin and increases its elasticity. It also has various uses in industry and is used in many chemical compounds for making cosmetics, food and medicine.

 

In “Safwat At-Tafasir”, (The Essence of Interpretations), the author states that, “also a tree springing out of Mount Sinai”, is a tree that grows of the rainwater sent by Allah. The olive tree grows on and around Mount Sinai, which is where Allah spoke to Moses. “Produces oil” means that the tree produces olive oil, which has many benefits. “Relish for those who use it for food” is as it can be eaten with bread. The adjective sibgh has been used to denote the coloration of the bread when it is dipped in olive oil. Allah has blessed this tree with two abilities; to produce oil and a condiment.

Scientific implications in this ayah:

 

Due to its unique character, the olive tree now has its own classification system for its genus within the order of flowering plants, order oleales. Prior to that, it was included in another order, known as contortae. This order includes one family known as the oleaceae family which is divided into two subfamilies, oleoideae and jasminoideae.

 

The trees of the family oleaceae includes 28 genera and between 500 and 600 species of flowering plants which grow all over the world, except for cold areas and the Arctic. They grow mainly in temperate and equatorial regions, particularly the Mediterranean basin and southwest Asia. In spite of this broad range of habitats, the trees of this family are rarely dominant in a single area; some of the trees are evergreen, like the olive tree and others shed their leaves.

 

The family oleaceae includes timber trees, shrubs and some creepers but they are all distinguished by their feathery leaves, whether they face each other or alternate, simple or complex. Some have small buds at the base of the leaves and the fruit in the family oleaceae are either spiky, such as the olive (it is a truly squeezable fruit formed from the growth of the ovary of the flower and has a solid seed in its core) or the fruit is soft and berrylike, such as the fruit of shrubs used for decoration or for hedging. The seeds in them are endospermic; they covered with a layer of the tissue used as food by the embryo which is usually longitudinal in shape.

 

The folded genera in order oleales have economic and aesthetic importance as shown in the olive trees, with its many types, fruits, oil and wood. There is also the ash tree which is well-known for its solidity. There are shrubs and creepers with fragrant scents such as lilacs and different types of jasmine. Olive trees are distinguished by their perennial nature whereby one tree can live for more than 2000 years.

 

Two kinds of olive trees grow in Egypt; one is wrongly known as the European olive (olea europaea) and should be rightfully named as the Sinai olive (olea sinaensis). It was originally cultivated in the Sinai Peninsula and then in other parts of the Mediterranean basin. One of these types of olives is commonly known as “apple-like olives” (Zeitoun Toufahi), and bears relatively large fruits with little oil content which makes them suitable for pickling. They are widely cultivated in the western oases and in Al-Fayoum. The other kind of olive is known as “northern olives” (Zeitoun Shamaly); their fruits are relatively small and rich in oil content which makes them suitable for pressing. They are widely cultivated in the Sinai Peninsula and along the Mediterranean coast.

 

“Produces oil” in the ayah means that its fruit contains oil, olive oil, and the fact that it changes the color of bread could be an indication of some of the hundreds of chemical compounds which Allah makes possible for the tree to extract from the water and soil, converting it into nutritious oils in its leaves and fruits. This whole process makes even the greatest factories built by man seem ineffective. This is why Allah praises both the olive tree and its oil in other six places in the holy Qur’an and swears by the fig and the olive in one of them. Olive trees are small but perennial and evergreen. They are able to withstand great aridity. Its fruit provides the most important vegetable oil as oil constitutes 60% to 70% of the overall weight. Olive oil is composed of a number of important chemical substances, such as glycerin together with fatty acids to form what are known as glycosides. Fatty acids constitute a significant proportion of the oil’s weight and the characteristics of each oil depend mostly on the type of fatty acid which form the glycosides inside it.

 

Some of the most important fatty acids in olive oil and fats are:

 

§ Oleic Acid.

 

§ Palmatic Acid.

 

§ Linoleic Acid.

 

§ Stearic Acid.

 

§ Mystric Acid.

 

Glycosides can be composed of a single or of multiple fatty acids; if they are produced from glycerin and a single fatty acid, they are called simple glycosides, but in most cases they are produced from glycerin and multiple fatty acids which are called complex or mixed glycosides.

 

Fats and oils are usually compounds of complex or mixed glycosides; however, some may contain a large proportion of particular kinds of simple glycosides, such as olive oil which contains a large proportion of oleic acid ranging between 67% to 84%, distinguishing it from other vegetable oils and animal fats. In addition to this, olive oil contains proteins and varying amounts of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, sulfur and other elements as well as some fibers. All these components form nearly 1000 chemical compounds in olive oil which are required to keep the human body strong and healthy. Thus, olive oil is better than other fats and oils, which all have organic compounds with a similar chemical composition; if they maintain a liquid form at 20° C, they are called oils, and if they solidify they are called fats. Fats include neutral fats, waxes and mixed lipids.

 

The most important source of vegetable oil is the oily seeds that produce cottonseed oil, linseed oil, sesame oil, sunflower oil, castor oil, peanut oil and soybean oil. We can also obtain vegetable oils from some oily fruits like olives, coconuts and oil palms, or from the embryos of grains such as wheat, corn and rice.

 

Vegetable oils are produced by crushing, then by pressing the oil. The solid remain of this process is called oil cake and is used as animal fodder as it is rich in protein. Sesame oil cake can be used as food for humans. The best vegetable oil is, of course, olive oil with the benefits Allah has given it, including: reducing blood pressure, reducing the absorption of cholesterol as well as reducing cholesterol in the blood by about 13% and reducing bad cholesterol, known as low density lipoproteins (LDL) by 21% and slightly increasing good cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL).

 

It has been medically proven that whenever bad cholesterol (LDL) levels drop and good cholesterol (HDL) increases, the chances of getting cardiac thrombosis are reduced and, in particular, getting cardiac muscle infarction. Consuming olive oil regularly protects the arteries from the possible clogging of blood vessels. This is very common at present, particularly in affluent countries where people usually eat until they are satiated. The lowest rate of coronary cardiac diseases was found in the Mediterranean region, particularly in countries where people consume olives and olive oil regularly. This is an indication to its active role in protecting the arteries, particularly as it has been proved that olives and olive oil contain chemical compounds that prevent blood coagulation. For this reason, doctors advise all patients who have had heart bypass operations to take 4 to 5 spoons of olive oil daily as part of their treatment.

 

By mentioning olives and olive oil in several places in the Qur’an, as well as Allah taking an oath by it, confirms its nutritional value which has been proved by medical and scientific research in the twentieth century. These Qur’anic references prove the scientific miracle of the Holy Qur’an which was revealed 1400 years ago as well as the miracles of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) to whom the Qur’an was revealed; he said, “Consume olive oil and use it as lubricant and lotion, for it comes from a blessed tree”.

 

Many questions related to this issue come to mind, such as, why did Allah reveal this ayah in the Holy Qur’an? And why did He make the Prophet (PBUH) inform us about the olive tree, its fruit and oil? The answer to these questions is that Allah knows best in His all-encompassing knowledge; perhaps that one day, man will discover the benefits of olives and olive oil, making the Qur’anic ayah and the above Hadith witnesses to the fact that the Qur’an is the Word of Allah.

 

Praise be to Allah who blessed us with the Qur’an and Islam and revealed it to the best of mankind, the Seal of the Prophets and Messengers and the Imam of the honored. Praise be to Allah in this life and the afterlife, praise be to Allah in every time and epoch. May Allah’s praise and peace be upon the loyal Prophet and his family, his companions and those who follow his true religion and invite to his message until the Day of Judgment.

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28102Sun, 02 Apr 2006 04:54:42 +0000
Affixed Into The Earth Mountains Standing Firmhttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/28100-affixed-into-the-earth-mountains-standing-firm/II. *“And He has affixed into the earth mountains standing firm, lest it should shake with you; and rivers and roads, that you may guide yourselves.” *(TMQ, An-Nahl: 15)

 

 

 

This ayah appears towards the beginning of Surat Al-Nahl (The Bee), a Makkan Surah, which gets its name from the reference Allah makes in it to bees and the special instinct He gave them. He has inspired them to build beehives, to live an organized life and to follow many paths to the flowers to provide us with the beneficial liquid that is produced in the bellies of female bees. Allah has given bees the unique privilege of being able to produce honey.

 

Surat Al-Nahl deals with a lot of important concepts that make up the pillars of the Islamic aqidah (creed), including:

 

· Complete belief in Allah’s divinity; that is He is the Creator and has dominion over everything.

 

· Allah’s absolute Oneness above His creation.

 

· The absolute and limitless power of Allah.

 

· The unhindered will of Allah.

 

· The revelation (of the Qur’an).

 

· The Prophethood and the message, completed and perfected in the message of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH, peace be upon him) who was the “seal” of the Prophets.

 

· Allah promises that the Qur’an shall be preserved in the form in which it was revealed to Muhammad (PBUH). The preservation of the previous books was left to the people they were sent to and were thus corrupted and changed from their original wording and meaning.

Signs of creation in Surat Al-Nahl:

 

This Surah mentions many signs of creation that give evidence of the divinity of Allah as reflected in the greatness of His creation. The Surah also mentions the many blessings of Allah on His worshippers in His perfect knowledge, the greatness of His wisdom and His precise planning, including:

 

1. The creation of the heavens and the earth.

 

2. The creation of man from a drop of sperm; it is this same man who is then often argumentative and denies his Creator.

 

3. The creation of cattle, a source of countless benefits for mankind.

 

4. The creation of horses, mules, and donkeys for transportation and other things of which man had no knowledge of.

 

5. The many beliefs of man that cause him to fluctuate between choosing the Straight Path and misguidance.

 

6. Allah sends down rain from the sky for the refreshment of mankind, animals and plants causing vegetation, including olives, date-palms and grapes, to grow out of the earth.

 

7. The passage of day and night and the passage of the sun, the moon and the stars by His order to regulate life in the universe.

 

8. The propagation of different life forms and the various types of surfaces, rocks, minerals and elements as well as the various cycles (water cycle, life cycle, rock cycles, etc).

 

9. He has made the sea for man’s use so that man may eat the food therein that is fresh and tender, so he can extract materials to make ornaments and sail ships that plough through the waves.

 

10. He has pegged mountains with deep roots on the Earth to stand firm so that the Earth does not shake and disrupt life on it and rivers that break rocks as they travel down from their source on the mountain tops. The soil formation and precipitation of minerals, rocks, and other resources and the making of roads and pathways in mountains and valleys.

 

11. He has made landmarks on earth to guide the traveler by day and the stars as a guide at night for those crossing the land and seas.

 

12. Allah is the creator of everything; His creation does have not the ability to create.

 

13. The description given of the punishment of some of the previous nations agrees with our current understanding of earthquakes, long before anyone knew the mechanisms behind earthquakes.

 

14. Allah gives assurance that, just as he punished the sinners by destroying their nations in the past, he is able to do so now and in the future. This further confirms our current understanding of the mechanisms of earthquakes and strengthens our belief that mountains are Allah’s soldiers, punishing the disbelievers, testing those who believe and giving hard learnt lessons to those who survive them.

 

15. The creation of milk in the stomachs of cattle originating from between their waste and blood, yet providing a pure, tasty drink.

 

16. Allah made the fruit of the date-palm and the vine a source of sustenance but some use it unwisely to produce intoxicating or alcoholic drinks.

 

17. Allah created the bee and allowed the females to build beehives on hills, trees and in homes, to gather nectar and pollen from different flowers and fruits and to travel great distances without forgetting its way home. The bee then changes the pollen and the nectar in its stomach into a drink of various colors in which there is a cure for mankind.

 

18. The cycle of life between creation and death is decided for all living creatures. Among the living are those who die young and there are those live into old age, losing their memory partially or totally.

 

19. Allah holds the birds poised in midair while flying; nothing keeps them there but the power of their Lord.

 

20. Allah created the sense of hearing before He created the sense of seeing.

Interpretation of these ayahs by some scholars:

 

Concerning the interpretation of the following ayahs, (And He has cast in the earth anchorages [mountains standing firm] so that it should not reel with you, and rivers and roads that possibly you would be guided.) (Surah Al-Nahl: 15). Ibn-Kathir said: “Mountains standing firm” means that Allah created the earth with its strong pillars and deeply rooted mountains which stabilize the earth and prevent it from shaking and disturbing life on Earth.

 

As for the words, “rivers and roads”, Allah created rivers that run from one place to another providing sustenance for believers. They originate in one place and provide sustenance for the inhabitants of other places and cut across landscapes, wildernesses and wastelands, they cut through hills and mountains. They pass through whatever Allah has willed and destined for them. He has also made paths that lead from one land to another, even through mountains, as He says, “And We have made in them paths”.

 

 

Scientific implications in these ayahs:

 

 

 

One of the scientific facts mentioned in these ayahs is the use of the word “pegging” to describe the formation of mountains, their stabilizing function for the Earth and linking it to the creation of rivers and mountain paths.

 

 

 

Describing the formation of the mountains as “pegging”:

 

 

 

A mountain is a part of the earth’s surface much higher than the land surrounding it; it has relatively steep sides and a summit. Mountains are usually found in chains, ranges or systems. Some mountains. Apart from certain mountains that exist singly, the smallest unit is the range, made up of either a single complex ridge or a series of ridges generally alike in origin, age, and form. Several closely related ranges, in parallel alignment or chain-like cluster, are known as a mountain system. An elongated series of systems forms a mountain chain and an extensive complex of ranges, systems and chains is known as a belt or cordillera.

 

 

 

There are two theories to explain the origin of mountains in the earth.

 

 

 

1. The Geosynclines Theory:

 

 

 

There were large depositional basins from seas and oceans ranging from hundreds of kilometers in length, tens of kilometers in width to more than one hundred meters depth. Many clastic and non-clastic types of sediments were deposited and accumulated in the floors of theses basins, in the form of throwing from up to down to form sedimentary rocks. The continuous thickening of these rocks caused loads and led to subsidence of the basin floor. This subsidence was accompanied by volcanic activity in the form of eruptions throwing the lava upwardly. The result was a thick intercalated sequence (about 1500m thick) form sedimentary and volcanic rocks. However, the depositional basins are bounded by active deep rifting faults which keep the continuous subsidence of the basins and two opposite wards the processes of deposition downwardly and the eruption of lava upwardly.

 

 

 

2. Plate Tectonic Theory: This recent theory depends on some facts in explaining the origin of mountains as follow:

 

 

 

1. The earth’s crust is broken up into plates or partitions called “tectonic plates” through cracks that can range from 65 to 150 kilometers in depth. The plate that forms the ocean floor is called ‘oceanic plate’ and that which forms the continent is called ‘continental plate’. Around the earth there are about 12 large plates and several small ones. These plates which formed from continental or oceanic crust float on hot, semi-molten materials of weak sphere (Asthenosphere). There is continuous movement between the adjacent plates, which is extensional, compressional or transformable (sliding), occurs along a relatively narrow zone where plate tectonic forces are most active. Usually, these movements are accompanied by volcanic and seismic activities (earthquakes). The volcanoes erupt and throw lava and magma to the surface until the magma gathers and crystallize as volcanic rocks creating a mountain which can reach heights of up to thousands of meters above sea level. This is because volcano activity can last for 20- 30 years (although some volcanoes have been recorded as staying active for more than a thousand million years).

 

 

 

Examples of volcanic mountains include: Mount Ararat in Turkey (5100m), Mount Etna in Sicily, Italy (3300m), Mount Vesuvius in Italy (1300m), Kilimanjaro in Tanzania (5900m) and Mount Kenya in Kenya (5100m).

 

 

 

2. Throughout the field studies it was noted that; orogenic belts consist of rocks that have been folded intensively, thrust long distances horizontally, often metamorphosed, intruded with granite and elevated to form mountain chains. These belts result from the forces of compression and convergent movements of the plates, which makes up the solid outer part of the Earth’s crust. These forces usually rise at the margins of discrete rigid plates and are accounted for by the theory of plate tectonics. Two main types of plate are found as mentioned before: continental plates that consist of relatively light rocks and heavier oceanic plates, which lie under most of the ocean basins of the world. Compression occurs when two plates converge and one sinks below the other along a subduction zone. Convergence, and the subsequent collision that generates compression, takes in three forms: collision between oceanic plate with continental one, two continental plates or between two oceanic plates.

 

 

 

The first of these forms develops when convergence occurs along active continental margins where an oceanic plate is passing under the edge of a continental plate. As the oceanic plate descends into the mantle of the earth, it is melted and injected back into the crust, with volcanic activity to form mountain chain consists mainly of volcanic rocks. The second form of collision takes place between two oceanic plates leading to the subsidence of one of them and forming a series of islands in the form of ‘volcanic island arc’ in another oceanic plate. If this process continues, the volcanic island arc can be carried on the oceanic plate towards the continent where it collides with the continental plate—this is called an arc-continent collision. Sedimentary rocks which have accumulated in the sea basin between the island arc and the continental plate are folded, faulted, and thrust into an elevated position over the margin of the continental plate towards the centre of the continent along a plane or surface known as a decollement. The island arc eventually becomes involved in this compression and the rocks of which it was composed are often metamorphosed by heat and pressure and injected with granite.

 

 

 

The third form of compression and orogeny results from continent-continent collision (two continental plates). Typically in this type of collision, two continents converge, one with a passive margin in which the continental and oceanic crust are welded together, the other with an active margin where the seduction of the oceanic crust under the continent eventually causes the closure of the intervening ocean basin. As closure begins, slices of the oceanic crust and any sediment that they carry are thrust on to the continental margins. As the thrust continues the slices are folded and elevated and eventually move horizontally, possibly sliding due to gravity on to the continents to form huge folds or thrust-nappes. These nappes become eroded to form the mountain chains. As compression continues in the closing gap, high pressures and temperatures generate a linear zone in which the rocks are metamorphosed, eventually welding the continents together along a continental suture.

 

Forces associated with extension (spreading) or stretching in the Earth’s crust also produces mountain ranges. Such forces occur where two plates are diverging or moving apart. At the early stages of development this divergence can lead to continental rupture where arching upwards and splitting of the crust occurs. Along the line of divergence a rift valley develops with the crack in the centre being continually filled with rising magma. Blocks on either side fall or slide down the side of the rift creating a mountainous landscape.

 

 

Description of the mountains as having deep roots and acting as anchorages:

 

 

 

The modern theory of plate tectonics holds that mountains act as anchorages for the earth’s crust. The crust is broken up into several tectonic plates through cracks that range from 65 to 150 kilometers in depth; there are about 12 large plates and several small ones. These plates, which contain the world’s continents and oceans, float on hot, semi-molten material, drifting and bumping against one another. Movement between the plates occurs along a relatively narrow zone where plate tectonic forces are most active i.e. in a weak zone of the earth’s crust. Thus the movement of those plates floating on molten magma coupled with the Earth’s movement around itself amount to a lot of force.

 

 

 

In addition, as the ocean basin grows as the sea floor spreads, the magma injected at the line of divergence creates a new mountain range called a mid-oceanic ridge. Thus, the only factor that limits the ferocity of the movement of the plates are the mountains that act as definite stabilizers for the earth’s crust, safeguarding the continents and oceans from constantly running into each other and not only does it decrease their velocity, it also regulates their movement!

 

 

 

Modern earth sciences have proven that mountains have deep roots under the surface of the ground and that these roots are several times their elevation above the surface of the Earth. We can thus safely conclude that the Qur’an’s description is accurate; the mountains are actually pegs in the earth’s weakest zones to anchor it firmly in the same way that we use anchors to firmly pin ships to the ground.

 

 

 

The link between the formation of mountains, rivers and paths:

 

 

 

A river is a flow of water along a channel from highlands to lowlands. The great majority of rivers eventually discharge either into seas or lakes, although some rivers disappear due to water loss through seepage into the ground and evaporation into the air.

 

 

 

 

 

The importance of rivers dwarfs their volumetric size (0.006 percent of all the fresh water of the earth). This is because river water flows down with gravity, giving it the power to mould the landscape through erosion, transportation and the deposition of rocks and sediments, making it a dynamic and renewable natural resource for human, plant, and animal life. The water cycle begins when water evaporates from the oceans into the atmosphere. Atmospheric water returns to Earth as precipitation in the form of rain, hail or snow. The amount of water reaching the ground depends on many factors but in general, highlands receive more precipitation than lowlands and most rivers originate in mountains. When precipitation reaches the ground, it usually seeps into the soil, either percolating down to the water-table to become groundwater, or flowing slowly downhill as through-flow. However, during heavy storms, due to human activity compacting the soil surface or covering it with concrete, or if the soil is already saturated, not all the water is able to infiltrate and the excess collects on the surface before flowing downhill to the nearest stream as overland flow. Water that reaches the river either by through-flow or overland flow is termed run-off. The role of the river in the water cycle is to complete the cycle by collecting run-off from the surrounding area (drainage basin) and carrying it back to the ocean or a lake in order to replace water that has evaporated. At this point, we can guess the obvious connection between rivers and mountains explained to us in the Qur’an long ago.

 

 

 

However, with the ever changing climate, rivers can eventually dry out leaving their channels as pathways and roads for humans and animals alike to use; this is the association the Qur’an points out between rivers and roads. Rivers are the best means that Allah created for pathways in otherwise inaccessible locations such as mountains, hills and plateaus.

 

 

 

Conclusion

 

 

 

These facts were unknown to man for a long time. He started to gather information about nature and its mysteries slowly, but it was only in the mid-nineteenth century that these explanations started to make some sense and the bigger picture did not come into view until the mid 1960s.

 

The precise mention of such facts, is an assertion that the Holy Qur’an cannot be man-made and bears witness to the Prophethood and the message of the seal of the Prophet (PBUH) who received it. It proves how the Prophet was connected to the revelation and taught by the Creator. This come in assertion to the words of Allah that can be translated as, *“And those who have been given knowledge see that what is revealed to you (O Muhammad) from your Lord is the Truth, and that it guides to the Path of the Exalted in Might, Owner of all praise.” *(TMQ, 34:6).

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28100Sun, 02 Apr 2006 04:52:01 +0000
Who Has Made The Earth A Resting Place For Youhttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/28099-who-has-made-the-earth-a-resting-place-for-you/II. *“Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped)”* (TMQ, Al-Baqarah – The Cow: 22)

 

 

 

This ayah appears towards the beginning of Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow) which was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) in Madinah. With 286 ayahs, this is the longest Surah in the Qur’an. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) praised this Surah saying, “Shaytan runs away from the house in which Surat Al-Baqarah is recited.” (Sahih Muslim).

 

 

 

Surat Al-Baqarah deals with a number of Islamic laws, issues related to worship, behavioral and moral principles and pillars of faith such as:

 

1. Belief in the Oneness of Allah (to whom no partner, equal or rival may be ascribed) and belief in His angels, apostles, Books and the Day of Judgment.

 

2. Belief in the unity of the human race regardless of race, ethnicity or any other distinction; all human beings are descendants of Adam and Eve.

 

3. Adhering to the pillars of Islam: the shahadah (testimony of faith), offering the five compulsory prayers, zakat, fasting in Ramadan and performing hajj (pilgrimage), for those who are able to.

 

4. There is no distinction between any of His Messengers; belief in the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) as being the “seal” of the Prophethood and that his message was the last divine message to be revealed and is preserved in the Qur’an.

 

 

Signs of creation in Surat Al-Baqara:

 

 

 

1. There is no doubt about any word, letter or sign in the Qur’an as scientific research showed later on (Ayah 2).

 

2. Reference to mental disorders, such as anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, and paranoia, which were unheard of 1400 years ago (Ayah 10).

 

3. The difference between light, fire and sunshine in contradiction to darkness, which was only recently discovered by scientists (Ayah 17).

 

4. Storms that normally occur at night and are accompanied by thunder, lightning and violent winds, bringing together different meteorological phenomena: a fact that has only been understood recently (Ayah 19).

 

5. Loss of sight by staring at lightning. Light travels faster than sound. (Ayah 20).

 

6. Acknowledgement of Allah as the Creator of everything (Ayah 21).

 

7. Reference to how the Earth is spread out, how the sky is held up and the celestial bodies that orbit therein, rain falling from clouds causing different kinds of fruits to grow and the prohibition of shirk (ascribing partners to Allah) (Ayah 22).

 

8. The example of the gnat and other insects distinguished by their sophisticated bodies (Ayah 26).

 

9. Death precedes life and then follows it; Allah created everything on earth, then He rose to the heaven and made it into seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything (Ayah29).

 

10. Mention of the historical fact that Allah split the sea into two for the Prophet Musa in order to save him and his followers and drowned Pharaoh and his soldiers (Ayah 50).

 

11. Allah caused twelve springs to gush forth with a strike of Prophet Musa’s staff on the eastern bank of the Gulf of Suez in an area known today as Uyun Musa (the Springs of Moses) (Ayah 60).

 

12. Using the east and west to denote the whole of the universe (Ayahs 124, 115).

 

13. Taking the Ka’ba as the kiblah (direction in which Muslims pray), confirming that Makkah is the center of the world (Ayahs 144, 149, 150).

 

14. Reference to the creation of the heavens and the earth, the alternation of day and night, ships sailing through the sea in the service of mankind, rain falling from the sky reviving the earth after its death, living creatures scattered throughout the earth, the change in the direction of the wind and the clouds held between the earth and the sky are indeed proofs for men of understanding (Ayah 164).

 

15. Assertion of the fact that the lunar cycles are signs to establish the months for people and pilgrimage (Ayah 189).

 

16. The harm that results from drinking alcohol and gambling is far more serious than any benefits they may have (Ayah 219).

 

17. The dangers associated with having sex during menstruation (Ayah 221).

 

18. Heavy rain does not cause damage to a garden or orchard situated on a height because the water subsides once the land takes what it needs. It may even double its harvest yield. If it does not receive heavy rain, light rain suffices to water the plants and to nourish the fruits. This means that the garden will flourish, whether it receives heavy or light rain. This similitude, comparing pious people who spend their wealth seeking Allah’s pleasure to a garden which flourishes no matter how heavy or light the rain it receives, is based on an established scientific fact. (Ayah 265)

 

As each of these issues need to be dealt with separately, I will limit my discussion to ayah 22 of Surat Al-Baqara, which deals with the following issues:

 

(1) Acknowledgement of Allah as the Creator of everything.

 

(2) The spreading out of the earth.

 

(3) The sky as a canopy governed by its own rules and the orbit of the celestial bodies in it.

 

(4) Rain falling from the sky.

 

(5) The production of fruit using rainwater.

 

Finally, we will conclude with a discussion on shirk (polytheism). Allah forbids us and warns us against shirk. But, let us first review some of the interpretations for these two ayahs.

 

Interpretation of these ayahs by some scholars:

 

“O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqun (the pious), Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped.)” (TMQ, Al-Baqarah : 21, 22).

 

Concerning the interpretation of these ayahs, Fi Zilal Al-Qur’an states, “…it is a call for mankind as a whole to worship their Lord Who created them and those before them. It is He who owns all of creation, thus He must be the only One worthy of worship. Worship has a goal that worshippers wish to achieve; namely, to become devout and righteous people who fear Allah and abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds He has forbidden. They hope to become excellent models for mankind. *“Who has made the earth a resting place for you”* is a phrase which refers to the comfortable life of man on earth which was made to be a pleasant dwelling and an adequate retreat for him, like a bed. People forget the allegory of the bed that was made comfortable for them by Allah as they take it for granted.

 

Scientific implications in these ayahs:

 

 

 

1. “Who has made the earth a resting place for you”

 

The surface area of the earth is estimated to be about 510 million km2; 29% (149 million km2) is land (lithosphere) and 71% (361 million km2) is water (hydrosphere). About half of the surface (173 million km2) is made up of epi-continental shelves submerged underwater. These vast dimensions make the earth (land surface) seem to be flat to man.

 

The land surface and the marine (sea and ocean) subsurface are not entirely flat but rise and fall in areas. Mount Everest, the highest peak on earth, is 8,848m, whereas the lowest one (400 below sea level) lies at the Dead Sea Basin. However, the Dead Sea which in part reaches to 800 m below sea level is considered to be a point on land as it is a landlocked sea. The level of the deepest region in the oceans is the Mariana Trench, which lies in the Pacific Ocean near the Philippines; it is 11,033km deep. The difference between the highest and the lowest point on earth is less than twenty kilometers (19,881 km). Comparing the radius of the earth (which is estimated to be about 6371 km on average), it seems that the difference between the highest and the lowest point on earth is no more than 0.3 % of the earth’s radius.

 

The difference between the average height of land (estimated to be about 840m above sea level) and the average depth of seas and oceans (which is estimated to be 3729m) comes to about 4500m. If you compare this to the radius of the earth, the resulting ratio would be about 0.007 %. This averaging technique helps us to understand how Allah leveled and spread out the surface of the earth. Initially, the Earth’s surface was formed from hardly high relief lands from mountains and plateaus. By the will of Allah, through various factors of erosion (weathering, friction, transportation and sedimentation), these mountains have been weathered to form smooth moderate to low height relieves from hills and plains. Moreover, the transportation factors as waters flow through rivers to transport the weathered detrital sediments from high lands to basins, oceans and seas forming great deltas. Once the high relief surface of the earth becomes level with the sea bottom taking the shape of a flat plain, the erosion affecting it ceases.

 

The struggle between the orogenic movements and the erosion is ongoing; the destructive processes try to make the high relieves of the land surface at the same height of the sea level through successive cycles known as ‘the Earth’s varied landscapes or the Earth’s erosional system. These cycles have been active from about least 4.6 billion years ago, to make the land surface flat and spread in order to make it suitable for man and other creatures. Mountain passes were formed; rivers, lakes, and plains were made. These types of interactions between land and water (continents and oceans), highlands and lowlands, rock cycles and all other processes of earthly equilibrium were created by Allah to give the earth a life-friendly environment and shall continue until the Day of Judgment. Thanks to these reciprocal cycles of construction and deconstruction, fertile plains, flourishing soil, various kinds from ore deposits and country rocks which had been accumulated through millions of years. Generally, the rate of sedimentation needs from 100 to 200 years to form one centimeter from sediments, in other hand erosion of one centimeter from rocks ranges from 3 to 300 years. Therefore, mankind would never have been able to undertake the task of flattening the land surface which is a time and energy consuming activity; Allah the Almighty has done this for us already when He says, *“Who has made the earth a resting place for you”*; these words are proof of His divinity, Oneness and the fact that He is the Creator.

 

 

 

2. “...and the sky as a canopy”

 

Allah has favored us with the sophisticated construction of the sky in its immense dimensions, with the countless celestial bodies, and the different types of matter and energy found there. Allah has given each and every molecule in the heavens a number of forces, such as:

 

1) Strong nuclear force: The force which holds the basic components of matter inside the nucleus. Without this nuclear force, atomic nuclei would never be formed and the universe would be filled worthless primary components of matter.

 

2) Weak nuclear force: The force which holds the basic components inside the atoms, without atoms of matter would not exist and the universe would be filled only with the nuclei of atoms.

 

3) Electromagnetic force: The force which holds atoms of matter together inside every molecule or compound. This force leads to electromagnetic radiation in the shape of photons. Without this kind of force, the universe would be filled with atoms of loose compounds and light and heat molecules would not exist and life would be impossible.

 

4) Gravitational force: The force that holds together all the regions of the sky, the stars and heavenly objects. Without this connecting bond that Allah has given every object in the universe, the earth and the sky would be unheard of. Once this bond vanishes, the universe and all its components would scatter. That is why we owe so much to Allah for His grace of making the sky like a canopy.

 

 

 

3. “...and sent down water (rain) from the sky”

 

Allah sends down water from the clouds where the rain is the source of all pure water on the earth’s surface. Initially, water comes from inside the earth in the form of vapor which travels upwards with volcanic eruptions and is condensed in the earth’s atmosphere which is cooler at higher altitudes. The earth then receives this water in the form of rain which follows in the ground surface to form seas and oceans. The water cycle thus starts in the earth. The amount of water that goes from the earth to the atmosphere is estimated to be about 380,000 km3, most of which is evaporated from sea and ocean surfaces (320,000 km3). The remainder is evaporated from land, around 60,000 km3. By Allah’s will, every drop of water which has evaporated from the earth comes back onto the land (96,000 km3) and into the seas and oceans (284,000 km3).

 

Thanks to this miraculous water cycle, water vapor travels into the earth’s atmosphere purifying itself of all salts and contaminants in order to come back to earth in a pure form. This cycle takes place between one kilometer below sea level and 15 km above sea level. It helps to clean water, moderates the weather and provides different levels of humidity, satisfies the thirst of man and animals, waters plants, fills rivers and springs and nourishes the soil and underground aquifers. Continuously, all of these are renewed, increased and refreshed by water cycle. It also helps to substitute the amounts of water it usually pumps out onto the land surface. Moreover, the water grinds up the rocks through weathering processes to form new soil, sedimentary rocks ore deposits and economic metals.

 

Though rainwater holds much good and mercy, Allah the Almighty can also use it as a punishment, as is the case with torrents and flash floods which can result in massive destruction, such as mudslides and overflowing rivers which damage property and cultivated land as well as killing people.

 

Thanks to the water cycle, the sedimentary cover, whose volume is estimated to be more than 360,000 km3, was formed. It contains salt evaporates which weigh millions of tons. These salts, which were originally leached by rain from the rocks, deposited through evaporation processes for sea water in lagoons and enclosed lakes. Afterwards, they were carried through the water cycle to seas and oceans so that they returned to earth through the reciprocal cycles between the oceans and continents when they are transformed from one into the other.

 

 

 

4. “And brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you”

 

In this ayah, fruit production is the fourth of the mentioned blessings that Allah Has bestowed on His servants. The life of men, animals and plants depend on this blessing and everything produced from them is linked to life, especially fruits of higher plant orders. Thus, we can clearly see Allah’s wisdom as He created plants before He created animals; after all, creation was made perfectly and the Earth was prepared to receive man. Allah created man and made him the most favored of all creatures.

 

The production of fruit is mentioned in a nice logical sequence; first the ayah refers to the formation of the earth through various processes of erosion (such as weathering, friction, removal and sedimentation) causing rocks to crumble and flat plains and rich soil necessary for cultivation to be formed making the earth a comfortable environment for human, animal and plant life. Secondly, it refers to the construction of the sky, starting with the atmosphere surrounding the earth and the clouds which act only within the rules determined by Allah the Almighty, i.e. the clouds are cooled at the highest altitudes till they carry all the condensed vapor that originates from earth and, with Allah’s will, fall back to earth in the form of rain. This is the reason the ayah refers to rain falling from the sky for Allah to bring forth different types of fruits from the earth as a provision for His servants. This but a drop in an ocean of countless blessings Allah has bestowed upon man and all creatures.

 

The name “fruit” is often applied loosely to all edible plant products--be it roots, stems leaves or flowers. Fruits fall into two types; real and accessory fruits. “Real fruits” include all kinds of plants whose fruits develop from the ovaries after they are fully fertilized by pollen. The embryo of the plant, which lies inside the seed, is covered with a number of sheaths which serve to protect and nourish the embryo throughout the germination period. Whereas, in some other examples, the fruit could be the seeds themselves as is the case with legumes and grains. The basic function of fruits is to preserve the embryos inside the seeds, nourish them throughout the germination period and to help propagate the plant species. Without these functions, higher plants would become extinct. As for the other functions of fruits, they serve as food for humans and animals.

 

Real fruits fall into three types: they are either simple (like apples), aggregate (like strawberries) or multiple (like berries). Accessory fruits are those which are formed by parts other than the ovary, such as figs or the fleshy cones of juniper trees. Some fruits are considered to be a basic food for man, some are used by different kinds of animals, and many of them are used to produce oil, spices, and colorings which man uses for cooking. They have various other purposes, like medicinal use, which both man and animals need to cure their illnesses and ease their pain. This is why fruit production is a great blessing from Allah acting as a witness to Allah’s divine omnipotence, which manifests itself in the variety and complexity of His creation.

 

 

 

5. “Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped)”

 

After examining an aspect of Allah’s blessings upon His servants, there is a divine order making shirk as haram (unlawful), forbidding mankind to set up partners to His divinity, partners who can neither harm nor benefit anyone and who have no power over anything. Every rational person realizes that Allah alone is the Creator, the Sustainer with great might and that all of creation is His servants. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was asked, “What sin does Allah consider to be the greatest?” He replied, “Making partners with Allah when He created you”. He said to Mu’adh Ibn Jabal, “do you know what Allah’s right is on His servant? That he worships Him and does not make partners with Him”.

 

 

 

These scientific facts were unknown to man until the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. That they were present in Allah’s divine scripture 1400 years ago proves that it is the word of Allah, the Creator, and confirms the Prophethood and message of Muhammad (PBUH), to whom these words were revealed. It is also a proof of tawhid (Islamic monotheism) which calls for worshipping the One God who has neither a rival nor opponent.

 

 

 

I bear witness that there is no God other than Allah and that Muhammad is His Messenger and servant (May Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him, his family, Companions and all those who have followed his guidance and footsteps until the Day of Resurrection) and praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds.

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28099Sun, 02 Apr 2006 04:51:03 +0000
A Garden On A Height; Heavy Rain Falls On Ithttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/28098-a-garden-on-a-height-heavy-rain-falls-on-it/"….is the likeness of a garden on a height; heavy rain falls on it and it doubles its yield of harvest. And if it does not receive heavy rain, light rain suffices it..." (TMQ, Surat Al-Baqarah: 265)

 

 

 

 

 

This verse appears towards the end of Surat Al-Baqarah (The Cow), which was revealed in Madinah and has 286 verses. It is the longest Surah in the Qur'an and gets its name from the miraculous story mentioned in it about a man from the israelites was murdered in the days of Musa (AS) and the identity of his murderer was unknown. Thus Allah (SWT) ordered Musa (AS) to order his people to slaughter a cow and to strike the dead man with a part of it; he then came back to life by Allah's will and told them the identify of his murderer. Truth was able to prevail as a result of this miracle and it was a manifestation of Allah’s (SWT) power to resurrect the dead.

 

 

 

Surat Al-Baqarah deals with the Jews and Christians at length; this subject matter covers more than one third of the Surah. The Surah concludes with an affirmation of the reality of faith and with a supplication to Allah that touches the heart and mind. The most significant facts mentioned in the Surah can be summarized as follows:

 

 

 

Personal characteristics of a virtuous believer mentioned in Surat Al-Baqarah:

 

 

 

1. Patience in suffering and adversity;

 

2. Fulfilling covenants and promises;

 

3. Courage and intrepidity in seeking martyrdom in the cause of Allah;

 

4. Boldness in upholding justice, declaring one's opinion and refraining from suppressing testimony;

 

5. Bounty, generosity and spending money in the cause of Allah;

 

6. Striving to do good deeds, to say kind words and to forgive others;

 

7. Showing respects to one's parents and kindness towards kin, orphans, the poor and to all people, and helping the needy without humiliating them or harming.

 

8. Avoiding all types of ill-gotten gain.

 

 

 

Tenets of faith in Surat Al-Baqarah:

 

 

 

1. Surat Al-Baqarah provides details of the rules governing the Muslim family from marriage, divorce, weaning children, the iddat (waiting) period for women after divorce or the death of their spouse, etc. Men are also ordered to refrain from having sexual intercourse with their wives during their menstrual cycles and marriage with polytheists is forbidden until they believe.

2. This Surah lists the foods that are forbidden, such as dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine and any animals that have not been slaughtered in the name of Allah. It is not sinful, however, if one consumes these foods through extreme necessity. Furthermore, the surah prohibits both intoxicants and gambling.

3. Retribution (qisas) is the rule stipulated in the case of murder.

4. The Surah encourages will writing and prohibited concealment or falsification of a will.

5. It prohibits the unlawful usurpation of other people’s property or possessions.

6. It sets checks for debt transactions.

7. Riba is prohibited outright. ( Riba: is that amount of money added to the original sum or balance of money that was borrowed, in other words; interest).

8. It encourages people to treat orphans well and sets up checks concerning money spent in the cause of Allah.

9. It prohibits the denial of undeniable religious truths.

 

 

 

Stories in Surat Al-Baqarah:

 

 

 

Many of Allah's prophets and messengers are mentioned in this Surah and reference is also made to a number of events that provide useful allegories, such as the following:

 

 

 

1. The story of Adam and Hawa’ (Eve).

2. The story of the people of israel and the Pharaoh, covering their exodus from Egypt with Musa (AS) who led them across the sea, and how water sprung out of the earth for their consumption and how they were then disobedient after receiving all these blessings from Allah and reverted to worshipping a calf. There is also reference to the story of how Allah transformed those who broke the rules of the Sabbath into monkeys. The Surah also refers to their denial of Allah’s signs and verses, their unjust slaying of prophets, distortion of the Torah, their disobedience to Allah's commands and transgression of the limits set by Him. Moreover, it shows how Allah raised above them (the towering height) of Mount (Sinai) to threaten and frighten them, as well as their story with the murdered person and Allah's order to them to slaughter a cow and to use its parts to hit the murdered person so that Allah (SWT) would resurrect him and let him utter his murderer's name then die again and their story with their king Talut (Saul) and with Galut (Goliath) and Dawud (AS) “David”.

3. The story of prophets sent to the people of israel such as Dawud (AS) and Solaiman (AS).

4. The story of Ibrahim (AS) and his son Isma'il (AS), who raised the foundations of the Ka’ba, and their prayer to Allah (SWT) to send the final prophet to Makkah and the debate between Ibrahim (AS) and King Nimrod who was the first man to falsely claim divinity to himself.

5. The story of Yaqub (AS).

6. The changing of the Qibla (direction for prayer) from Jerusalem to Makkah.

7. The story of Isa (Jesus) (AS).

8. The story of the Uzair (Ezra) who went to Jerusalem after it was destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar; the verse states what can be translated as,* “…He said: “Oh! How will Allah ever bring this town back to life after its death and destruction?” So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, and then raised him up (again). He said: “How long did you remain (dead)?” He (the man) said: “(Perhaps) I remained (dead) a day or part of a day”. He said: “Nay, you have remained (dead) for a hundred years, look at your food and your drink, they show no change; and look at your donkey! ( it was remnants of its bones and Allah brought it back to life in front of him )And thus We have made of you a sign for the people. Look at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh”. When this was clearly shown to him, he said, "I know (now) that Allah is Able to do all things.”” *(TMQ, Surat Al-Baqarah: 259)

 

 

 

Signs of Creation in Surat Al-Baqarah:

 

 

 

Surat Al-Baqarah mentions many of signs of creation that can be summarized as follows:

 

 

 

1. The distinction between the different types of light, each with its own characteristics and the contrast between darkness and light. These are scientific realities that have only been recently discovered.

2. The fact that hearing precedes sight in human development. It has been scientifically proven that in the stages of the creation of a human being, hearing is developed before sight.

3. The description of how heavy outpours of rain are consistently accompanied by darkness, thunder and lightning.

4. Reference to the consecutive stages in the Earth’s preparation to receive human life, from leveling the Earth’s surface, the building the heavens surrounding it, rain descending on the Earth, fruits grew on the Earth for our sustenance, revival of the earth after it had been barren and the scattering of all kinds of animals throughout the earth.

5. The miracle of the sea splitting for Musa (AS), was also mentioned, saving him and those who were with him from the Pharaoh and his soldiers, as well as of the gushing forth of twelve springs with one strike of Musa’s (AS) staff. These wells still exist until today along a single fault in the Earth’s crust in the eastern area of the Suez Peninsula.

6. Reference to psychological elements such as fear, suspicion and doubt, all of which have shown by studies in the field of psychology to be scientific truths that were unknown at the time of the revelation of the Qur’an.

The hardheartedness of the Jews is mentioned and is compared to the hardness of rocks; their hearts are considered harder than rocks as there are some rocks which soften with the rivers that flows over them, there are some that split and water flows out of them and others that sink for fear of Allah (SWT).

7. Reference to the true East and West of the Earth, giving an indication of the Earth being the centre of the universe. This is a scientific fact that has yet to be accepted by secular science.

8. Reference to the creation of the Heavens and Earth, the alternation of night and day and the passage of ships through the sea for the benefit of mankind; all of this is part of Allah’s supreme Dominion.

9. Reference to the direction of the winds and the clouds which trail between the heavens and the earth in subjugation. These are scientific truths that have only been slightly understood in the latter decades of the twentieth century.

10. New moons are signs to mark appointed times and dates in the lives of people and for the pilgrimage.

11. Reference to women's menstrual periods and advising men to refrain from sexual intercourse with women during menstruation due to the harm and damage that can be inflicted on women as a consequence. Medical studies have indeed confirmed this fact.

12. Emphasizing the dangers of intoxicants and gambling which outweigh any benefit that may be reaped from them.

13. Mentioning the scientific truth that an orchard on a flat surface, which is more elevated than what surrounds it, if subjected to heavy rain, will bear twice the amount of fruit. This is because the likelihood of it being flooded with heavy rain is non-existent as the water quickly drains away from the soil after it has taken what it requires; this is as it is elevated above the valleys surrounding it. If, however, it does not receive heavy rain but light moisture (dew or light drizzles of rain) it is sufficient to water the plants and to produce plentiful fruit.

 

The point here is that such a garden on a height, thrives, flourishes, bears fruit and produces generously whether or not it receives heavy rain.

 

 

 

Surat Al-Baqarah describes those who spend for the sake of Allah and who are righteous. Allah makes what they have spent for Him in His cause thrive and grow (irrespective of whether the amount spent is large or small); the rewards of spending for the sake of Allah are compared to the produce of the garden on a height thrives and grows whether or not it receives heavy rain.

 

Each of the above mentioned scientific matters requires separate analysis; therefore, I will only focus my analysis in this article on the last point concerning the description of the garden on a height. Before starting, we shall have a quick look at the interpretation of this noble verse by old and contemporary scholars.

 

 

 

Interpretation of this verse by scholars:

 

Concerning the interpretation of the following verse that can be translated as,* “And the likeness of those who spend their wealth seeking Allah’s Pleasure and to strengthen their souls, is the likeness of a garden on a height; heavy rain falls on it and it doubles its yield of harvest. And if it does not receive heavy rain, light rain suffices it. And Allah is All-Seer (knows well) of what you do.”* (TMQ, Surat Al-Baqarah: 265).

 

 

 

Ibn-Kathir said, “This is the likeness of the believers, who spend their wealth seeking to please Allah by doing so. * “…and to strengthen their souls …” *They know for a certainty that Allah will reward them most generously for spending in His cause.

 

 

 

Al-Sha’abi explained* “…and to strengthen their souls…”* means that they do this out of true faith and absolute certainty.

 

 

 

All the scholars agree that *“…is the likeness of a garden on a height…”* means a place that is elevated from the ground; Ibn Abbas and Ad-dahak add that rivers flow through this garden. *“…Heavy rain falls on it and it doubles its yield of harvest…”* means it bears twice the amount of fruit as compared to other gardens, if it receives heavy rain.

 

 

 

Safwat Al-Bayan says that *“…and to strengthen their souls…”* means that as well as spending their wealth to seek Allah’s pleasure, they do so to accustom themselves to patience adherence to the pious act of spending in the cause of Allah and to firmly guide themselves away from anything that spoils or corrupts the intentions behind and the execution of this deed. It could also mean to affirm and strengthen their faith in Allah and to obtain the promised reward that is a consequence of their actions, since their actions are what drives and initiates their reward. The word *“…garden…”* is used to mean the trees that are closely intertwined as well as the land on which these trees grow, however, the first meaning (the trees) is more pertinent to the context.

 

 

 

*“…on a height…”* A height is an area that is elevated above the level of streams. Trees that grow at heights are normally more beautiful and their fruit are more delicious. The word *“…harvest…”* means fruits. The expression *“…light rain…”* refers to the lightest drops of rain or to the drizzle that suffice the garden due to its high fertility.

 

 

 

The intended meaning is that the garden thrives and bears fruit whether the rain it receives is heavy or light, just as what is spent in the cause of Allah for His pleasure and to strengthen the souls thrives and grows (whether the amount expended is large or small).

 

 

 

The scientific implications of the noble verse:

 

 

It is an obvious fact that the earth’s surface is not completely flat. It ranges from high lofty summits to low lying mountain ranges to the level plains that stretch to reach an altitude slightly above sea level.

 

 

 

Between the lofty summits and the leveled plains, we find heights and hills with different altitudes until we reach the plains, then we find continental depressions and sea and ocean trenches.

 

 

 

The reason why the topography of earth is variable is because of the different chemical and mineral composition of the rocks forming it and consequently the difference in the density of these rocks. This is because the earth’s solid layer (earth’s crust) floats on a layer of semi-molten materials, which is called the weak zone (Asthenosphere) in the earth’s layers. This floatation is governed by the laws and principles. (For example buoyancy principle, just as an iceberg that is less dense than water floats in the ocean).

 

 

 

The highest peak on the earth’s surface, Mount Everest in the Himalayan mountain range, reaches an altitude of 8848 m above sea level. The lowest point on land’s surface is the floor of the Dead Sea (a part of continent not marine) and is about 400 m below sea level. The average altitude of land on earth is roughly 840 m above sea level.

 

 

 

The deepest point on the ocean floor of the earth is the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean; its depth is a little over eleven km whereas the average depth of ocean floors is about four km (3729 to 4500 m) below sea level.

 

 

 

These variations in altitudes provide vastly varying types of living environments, each suited for a specific form of life. We find therefore that fruit and chestnut trees and in general trees that have produce grow best on hills and heights that are under one thousand m above sea level, whereas grains and potatoes stop growing at about two thousand m above sea level (around 2160 m). The maximum altitude for forest growth is 2660 m above sea level.

 

 

 

The height best suited for a garden that was given as an example in the verse under analysis is wondrous, since this is the best environment known to us for the growth of fruit trees and others trees that have produce such as olive trees, almond trees, pine trees and others. This is because the environment of heights is characterized by mild weather, abundant water, a greater chance of being exposed to sunshine, rainfall, humidity, wind movement and to air renewal around it. Therefore it is the most suited environment for the growth of trees in general and of fruit trees in particular.

 

 

 

Heights are features of the earth’s surface that are leveled and elevated above sea level by an average altitude ranging from 300 to 600 m. Their altitudes are lower than that of mountains and higher than that of hills. Consequently, rain water never drowns heights, no matter how strong the rainfall is. That is because the rain water is pushed ever downward by the force of gravity to the surrounding areas that are lower than the height. That is after its soil and rocks had been saturated with the required amount of water, which both cools and refreshes them and is stored in them. Controlling the amount of stored water helps plants perform their vital activities efficiently without drowning or dehydration. Dehydration kills the plants and drowning them in water or having an increase in the water storage in the rocks and soil would result in the decay, rotting and decomposition of the roots which would also kill the plants.

 

 

 

When heavy rain falls on a height, both its soil and rocks and the plants growing on it take their required intake of water, while excess water flows over to the lower surrounding areas till it reaches the valleys and the plains. The controlled amount of water stored in the soil and rocks of the height helps the roots of plants in general and of trees in particular to extend deeper into the soil and rocks. This multiplies the amounts of elements and compounds that become available for the roots to absorb, along with the nutritional sap they extract from the ground. The extended roots also help fix the plants in the ground and make them resistant to strong wind and other environmental changes.

 

 

 

One of the advantages of the environment of heights is that if it receives heavy rain, it doubles its produce and if the humidity decreases and only drizzle or dew are available as moisture, it still bears plenty of fruit. This is because plants growing on heights are able to benefit from the rain water whatever the quantity they receive, as well as from the dew that condenses at higher rates than in plains or in closed valleys, particularly in dry regions.

 

 

 

Fruit trees and others trees such as olive, almond, and pine trees bear more fruit at heights that are above sea level than on level plains and closed valleys because if heavy rain falls on the height, the excess water quickly flows away from it after the garden has taken its water requirements. It therefore benefits it and does not harm it in any way. The garden therefore bears double the amount of fruit. Nevertheless, when the garden does not receive heavy rain then the drizzle or dew condensing around it is sufficient to provide it with its water requirements, so it continues to live and bear fruit by the will of Allah.

 

 

 

The verse thus likens those who spend their wealth, seeking Allah’s pleasure and to strengthen their souls (whatever their material ability) to a fertile garden with fruitful trees growing on an elevated height in favorable environmental conditions that have provided the garden with all the means for growth and a very generous production of fruit when it receives heavy rain, moreover, still a generous production of fruit if it receives light rain. The continuous production of this garden does not stop under any circumstance, similarly believers spend in the cause of Allah driven by their faith in Allah (SWT) and their firm belief that He is the Sustainer and that He is the Powerful and the Strong. They therefore spend in His cause whether their financial ability is strong or weak. They spend seeking only His pleasure and the strengthening of their souls, since one of the ways to train the human soul is through spending money in the cause of Allah, and in this respect Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as, *“And the likeness of those who spend their wealth seeking Allah’s Pleasure and to strengthen their souls, is the likeness of a garden on a height; heavy rain falls on it and it doubles its yield of harvest. And if it does not receive heavy rain, light rain suffices it. And Allah is All-Seer (knows well) of what you do.”* (TMQ, Surat Al-Baqarah: 265).

 

 

 

This verse points clearly to the preference of growing fruit trees in general on heights, which are flat elevated grounds, lower than mountains and higher than hills, ranging in altitude between 300 and 600 m above sea level. This is a scientific fact that has been proven by experiments over successive decades. This scientific fact is present in the Qur’an which was revealed over 1400 years ago to an illiterate prophet (PBUH) in a nation whose large majority were illiterate and living in a dry desert with no knowledge of gardens or fruit trees except for palm or some vines in very limited areas of it. This Qur’anic description therefore bears witness that these are the words of Allah, the Creator, who has revealed it with His knowledge to His last prophet (PBUH). Since the Qur’an is the last message, Allah (SWT) has undertaken to guard it in the same language of its revelation (Arabic). Therefore, He has protected it word for word, letter for letter, from any addition or omission or alteration or change, for over 14 centuries and until the Day of Judgment, as He has promised what can be translated as,* “Verily, it is We Who have sent down the Dhikr (i.e. the Qur’an) and surely, We will guard it (from corruption)”* (TMQ, Surat Al-Hijr: 9).

 

 

 

Praise be to Allah for the favor of the Qur’an and praise be to Allah for the favor of Islam and praise be to Allah for guiding us to this while we could never have been guided to this had it not been for the guidance of Allah, and praise be to Allah in the hereafter and in this first world. Blessings and peace be upon the last prophet and messenger and on his family and companions and all who follow his guidance and invoke with his invocation until the Day of Judgment.

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28098Sun, 02 Apr 2006 04:49:40 +0000
Seed-grain, Fruit-stone To Split And Sprouthttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/28097-seed-grain-fruit-stone-to-split-and-sprout/*"Verily! It is Allah Who causes the seed-grain and the fruit-stone (like date-stone) to split and sprout."* (TMQ, Al-An’am:95)[1]

 

 

 

This aya comes in the beginning of the second half of surah (chapter of the Holy Qur'an) Al-An’am (livestock). This surah was revealed in Makkah. It is one of the longest surahs of the Holy Qur'an. It consists of 165 ayas. It was named “Al-An’am” because of the numerous times this word is mentioned throughout the surah. This surah was uniquely revealed all at once.

 

 

 

Some scholarly interpretations of the aya:

 

 

 

· According to Mukhtasar Tafsir Ibn Kathir (The summarized edition of the interpretation of the Holy Qur'an by Ibn Kathir) throughout this Aya “Allah (SWT) states that He splits the seed-grains and fruit-stones while they are in the soil. As a result, various types of plants begin to germinate from the seed-grains, whereas fruits of various colors, shapes and tastes germinate from the fruit-stones.

 

 

 

· Mukhtasar Tafsir Al-Jalalain (The summarized edition of the Interpretation of the Holy Qur'an by Jalal Ad-din As-siyuti and Jalal Ad-Din Al-mahilli) states that the verse *"Verily! It is Allah Who causes … to split and sprout" means that Allah splits the seed-grain from which plants germinate and the fruit-stone from which (palm) trees germinate.”

 

 

 

* In his book, In the Shade of the Qur’an, (Fi Zilal Al-Qur’an) Sayyid Qutb said, “Life-its creation and development- is a miracle that no one could know its secret, not to mention they could make it. There is a miracle whenever a growing plant splits from a dormant seed-grain and an elongating tree splits from a latent fruit-stone. The potential life of the seed-grain and the fruit-stone along with the growing life of plants and trees is a secret whose reality and source are known only to Allah, the Omniscient, the Omnipotent.

 

 

 

In spite of all the phenomena and forms of life that human beings had and all the characteristics and phases of life they studied, they are still, like the first human being, unable to reveal the secret of life; they just understand the appearance and functions of life, but they know nothing about its resource and essence. Nevertheless, life goes on and the miracle occurs in an instant.”

 

 

 

* Safwat Al-Bayan Li-Ma’ani Al-Qur'an (The Elite Interpretation of the Meanings of the Holy Qur'an) states that, *"Verily! It is Allah Who causes the seed-grain and the fruit-stone (like date-stone) to split and sprout"* marks the beginning of evidence proving Allah's Omnipotence, Omniscience and Wisdom after affirming the evidence of monotheism and Prophethood.” The author further stated that, “(Causes … to split) means that Allah splits the lifeless seed-grain, such as that of the buckwheat, causing the green plants to germinate. He, the Almighty, also splits the lifeless fruit-stone causing palm trees and other trees to germinate.”

 

 

 

The scientific implications of the aya

 

 

 

Plant seeds have two distinct names: habb (seed-grains or pits) and nawa (fruit-stones). The first term, Habb, denotes the seeds of the edible crops such as wheat (buckwheat), barley, corn, and oats. All of these corps belong to the vascular flowering plants that have a single cotyledon in the seed. The term also includes the dicotyledonous seeds that can be found in, for example, the leguminous seeds such as beans, okra, chick peas, peas, green beans, black-eyed peas, lentils, lupine, soybeans, peanuts and fenugreek. Moreover, the term can be used for denoting inedible seeds such as berseem, cotton, etc.

 

 

 

On the other hand, harder seeds are called nawa. Linguistically, the word “Nawa” can be masculine or feminine. It is mentioned only once in the Holy Qur'an. Examples of crops with nawa include: dates, apricot, plums, peach, olives, etc. Regardless to the nature of the seed coat, whether it is soft-delicate, thick-woody, or hard-leguminous, Allah (SWT) enables the embryo to split once it acquires the favorable conditions needed for its germination. This miraculous process, known as “Seed Germination” and used by most of the higher form of plants for reproduction, facilitates the sprout of the embryonic seed leaf from inside of the seed itself.

 

 

 

Seed plants, from which human being obtain most of their food and nutrition, include more than 250,000 genera of higher form plants of different categories. Each genus is represented by an average of at least ten species; each onech is represented by infinite numbers of individual plants that reproduce through seed dispersal or implantation for as much as Allah wills.

 

 

 

All crops which are used as main nutritional sources for man can be called Ghalla (produce), a word that never mentioned in the Qur’an. The term habb is mentioned in the Qur'an six times in five verses.

 

The nature of seeds

 

 

 

Seeds are the fertilized ovules of the higher-form plants. Thus, they serve as the reproductive organ for most of these plants. The seed contains an embryo which is temporarily dormant and occupies a very small area of the seed’s size leaving the remaining area for the stored inorganic food. This stored food is essential for the embryo's germination in its early stages. The root grows downwards penetrating the soil in order to draw water and nutrients. On the other hand, the shoot grows upwards to absorb air and sunlight. Once the green leaves are brought forth, the plant starts the photosynthesis process that provides the food needed to promote its growth and buildup its cells, tissues, flowers, and fruits.

 

 

 

The seed, with its embryo and albumen, is covered by a number of coats to protect it against any external effect. One of the most important coats is the testa, which is formed from the integuments after the fertilization process. The exocarp is formed from the wall of the ovary immediately after fertilization. As the seed matures, it dries and the living embryo within it remains dormant until the surrounding conditions are suitable for germination. The period between the seed's maturity and viability varies. Sometimes the seeds are viable once they are removed or sprout out of the fruit. If such seeds dried, the embryo may partly lose of its vitality or it might die. In some other plants, such as the seeds of the legume family and the stones of many fruits like those of date's palm, the embryo remains vital within the grain or stones for many years. The number of the seeds' coats, their shape and nature vary between plants. Moreover, there are variations in the shape and size of the embryo, as well as in the way the plants store the food that accompanies the embryo. The food is stored either in a special tissue called the endosperm or in one, two, or more cotyledons. This storage may be floury and amylaceous, hard and leguminous (as in the seed of corn) or cellulosic as in the stones of date's palm.

 

Splitting the grain and stones (seed germination)

 

 

 

The coats that protect the seed are often distinct. In some cases, when they fuse with the seed’s wall, these coats can’t be identified. Allah, the Great Creator, provides the embryo of the seed with a limited connection with the outside world through a very tiny circular scar known as the hilum. The hilum is the location that links the seed to the funicle. Under the hilum, there is a narrower opening known as the micropyle. These two openings are covered with a spongy tissue called the aril, which has the ability to absorb water. Moreover, they may take the form of two linear slits, known as the style and the cone. Through these two openings, oxygen, as well as most of the water absorbed by the seed during its germination, passes into the embryo.

 

 

 

The dormant embryo within the seed consists of three main parts:

 

(1) The plumule which will form the shoot system;

 

(2) The radicle which will form the root system;

 

(3) The hypocotyl which will form the stem.

 

 

 

The food, which surrounds the embryo, is stored either in a special tissue known as the endosperm, or in one cotyledon or more. That food consists of different carbohydrates, proteins, and fats according to the plant type. Monocotyledonous plants with covered seeds include corn, whereas dicotyledonous plants include bean and polycotyledonous plants include conifer which belongs to Gymnospermae. The cotyledon or cotyledons may remain under the soil or spring up. They act as a primary leaves known as cotyledonous leaves.

 

 

 

The requirements for seed germination

 

 

 

There are many internal and external requirements for the seed to grow and turn gradually to a seedling and then to a complete plant. This occurs after the period of dormancy the embryo undergoes within the dry seed. The internal requirements are related to the seed itself such as the vitality of the embryo, the maturity of the seed, and the absence of seed decay and rot. In order to become mature, the seed has to be void of growth inhibitors such as abscisic acid. This acid is formed within some seeds to keep the embryo dormant until the conditions become favorable and suitable for its germination. Many seeds start to grow only when growth inhibitors are eliminated through heat and light. Growth inhibitors can also be eliminated by anti-growth inhibitors released by the embryo itself within the seed. Glory be to Him Who predestined such process through His Omniscience and Omnipotence.

 

 

 

The internal requirements also include the ability of the seed to absorb adequate amounts of water and oxygen. Allah, the Creator (SWT) has made tiny openings in the body of the seed for this purpose such as the hilum and the micropyle or the style and the cone. Some types of seeds are covered with a thick outer coat that may prevent the adequate amount of water and oxygen from reaching the embryo except after this coat is torn by going through a series of natural, chemical or microbial activities. Such seeds are difficult to germinate unless their outer coats are scratched or the seeds themselves are washed and soaked in water for a certain period of time or subjected to light or low temperatures (about five degree Celsius for a period ranging between four to six weeks). Light and low temperatures activate the embryo within the seed and assist in its germination.

 

 

 

Concerning the external requirements, firstly and most importantly for germination is the availability of water with suitable specifications. There must also be an adequate amount of water because if water floods the seeds this could spoil them as the oxygen will not reach the embryo within the seed. Moreover, there must be an adequate amount of oxygen as well as proper heat and lighting because some seeds become active in light, while others prefer darkness.

 

 

Changes that happen to seeds during germination

 

 

 

As soon as the internal and external requirements are available for germination, the seed absorbs water, swells, and gets larger. At this point, a complicated series of anabolic and catabolic reactions takes place. Such reactions help the embryo to grow after a period of complete dormancy within the dry seed. Thus, it begins to germinate and repeats the life cycle of the mother seed. This process of germination goes in the following steps:

 

 

 

(1) The seed absorbs water, and gradually gets filled with water until it swells. As a result, the testa (the hard outer coat of the seed) is torn because of the increased pressure from inside the seed. Accordingly, adequate amounts of water reach the embryo as well as the stored food surrounding it. This helps to activate the stored food chemically and the embryo biologically.

 

 

 

(2) The embryo's secretion of enzymes: The embryo begins secreting some enzymes that are capable of crumble and anabolism the surrounding food stored in the cotyledons or in the special tissue. The enzymes carry on the anabolism of the complicated insoluble substances to form simple and soluble substances that the embryo can absorb and use them during the early stages of germination. Examples of such enzymes are the following:

 

- Diastase that converts starch to sugar

 

- Protease that breaks proteins down into amino acids.

 

- Lipase that anabolise fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerol so that the food store within the seed greatly increases.

 

 

 

(3) The soil's cracking: One of the most important factors causing the soil to crack is the seeds swelling as a result of absorbing adequate amounts of water. Being swollen, the seeds generate great power that can hardly be perceived by the human mind. For instance, if we fill a bottle with dry seeds and add the adequate amount of water and tightly close the bottle, the power resulting from seeds germination and the enlargement of their size by the water absorption can shatter the bottle however thick it is. The soil can also be cracked by the extent of thirst its minerals has for water. As a result of absorbing great amounts of water, the minerals expand and rise upwards until the soil is softened and then cracks so as to make room for the plumule extending upwards from the germinating seed. The predominance of argillaceous minerals helps to move the soil particles upwards. These argillaceous minerals take the form of minute laminated sheets reserving gases inside them, so that if water passes through it replaces these gases and pushes them out of the soil. As a result, the particles of the soil move upwards and shake violently until the soil is softened and cracks. Another factor causing the cracking of the soil is the electrical charges found in the argillaceous sheets. Such electrical charges repel with the similar ones found in the dipole water molecule, consisting of the positive pole of the hydrogen atom and the negative pole of the oxygen atom.

 

 

 

(4) The growth of the embryo's cells: The embryo's cells now start to divide and grow until the radicle elongates downwards and anchors the plant in the soil. Accordingly, the plant is connected to the natural source that provides it with nutrients. Such nutrients are either absorbed by the plant in the form of a sap consisting of elements and compounds dissolved in water or directly extracted by the root system from the soil's components. Allah (SWT) gives each plant highly selective abilities in order to select the proper elements and compounds of the soil that are essential for its germination. After the root system is completed, the plumule goes upwards, penetrating the soil's holes to appear above its surface. This way, the germinating seed turns into what is called a seedling, which grows gradually higher to be the stem bearing the leaves and buds that form the shoot system. By the end of the process of germination, the seedling finally turns into a complete plant. Blessed be Allah, the Best Creator

 

 

 

During the germination process, cotyledon/s may remain under the soil’s surface (surrounded by the torn testa) until the embryo consumes the stored nutrients as it happens in the process of germinating pea seeds or the stone of date palms.

 

 

 

On the other hand, the hypocotyl may grow upwards bringing one cotyledon or two cotyledons along with the plumule above the soil’s surface. The single cotyledon or both of them would gradually turn into green participating in the process of photosynthesis. This participation would continue for a limited period of time until the plumule lengthens and the green leaves appear on it forming the shoot system. The shot system would carry on the process of photosynthesis. Then the cotyledon would fade away and fall down after consuming all the nutrients it has.

 

 

 

These complicated processes that take place during the splitting and sprouting of grains and stones can never be done by any creature. Moreover, they cannot take place without the direction and guidance of Allah. For this reason, Allah (Blessed and Exalted be He) attributed these two processes directly to Him to honor them. In fact, without these processes, life would not have been possible on earth. Thus, Allah says what can be translated as, *“Verily! It is Allah Who causes the seed-grain and the fruit-stone (like date-stone) to split and sprout.”* (TMQ, Surat Al-An’aam: 95)

 

All praises be to Allah for His various blessings, among which is the splitting and sprouting of seed-grains and fruit-stones and foremost of which is the Holy Qur’an, which Allah (Blessed and Exalted be He) revealed to His final Messenger and Prophet – Muhammad (PBUH). Furthermore, Allah (SWT) declared that he would forever preserve the Holy Qur'an from any corruption that may occur to its language of revelation, its words or even its letters and consequently the Holy Qur’an has maintained the divine glory shining in its verses as well as the scientific precision presented in its content. This scientific precision serves as a witness to the truth of its revelation and the truth of Muhammad's prophet hood.

 

 

 

To conclude, we invoke Allah to send His Peace and Blessings upon our final Prophet Muhammad, his household, companions and followers until the Day of Judgment. All praises be to Allah – the Lord of Alalamin (the world of humans and that of the jinn).

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28097Sun, 02 Apr 2006 04:48:50 +0000
Neighboring Tracts, Gardens Of Vines, Green Cropshttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/28095-neighboring-tracts-gardens-of-vines-green-crops/“And in the earth are neighboring tracts, and gardens of vines, and green crops(fields), and date-palms, growing into two or three from a single stem root, or otherwise, watered with the same water; yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat. Verily, in these things there are signs for the people who understand.”

 

(TMQ, Ar-Ra‘d - The Thunder:4)

 

 

 

 

 

This noble verse comes at the beginning of Surat Ar-Ra‘d (The Thunder), a chapter revealed in Makkah comprised of 43 verses after the basmallah (In the name of Allah, Most Merciful, Most Compassionate). The reason for its name is the reference to thunder (a recurring meteorological phenomenon) as a way to glorify and praise Allah as Allah the Almighty says in Surat Al-Isrâ’, what can be translated as, *“The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him and there is not a thing but glorifies His Praise. But you understand not their glorification. Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving.”* (TMQ, 17:44).

 

 

 

The main theme of Surat Ar-Ra‘d is the tenets of faith which include:

 

1) Belief in the Oneness of Allah the Almighty.

 

2) That He has no partner and no one could ever resemble Him.

 

3) That every description must befit His Glory, and that servitude should be totally submitted to Him alone.

 

4) Belief in His angels and the Holy Scriptures and messengers.

 

5) Belief in the last revelation to the last of His Messengers (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them all).

 

We must also believe, as it was mentioned in all religions, in the certainty of the Day of Resurrection, and in heaven and hell. We must believe that the Holy Qur’an is integral and protected by Allah the Almighty against distortion. We must also follow the Sunnah (sayings, orders and actions) of the last of the Messengers, the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him).

 

þ

Signs of creations in Surat Ar-Ra‘d

 

There are many verses in Surat Ar-Ra‘d that refer to a large number of scientific facts and phenomena in the universe. The following are some of these facts:

 

 

 

1. Raising the heavens with invisible pillars.

 

2. Subjecting the sun and the moon, each running its course for an appointed term.þ

 

3. Extending the earth (by making it round), and placing firm mountains and their relationship with forming rivers of flowing water.

 

4. Creating vegetables, fruits and everything else in pairs (of opposite gender or type).þ

 

5. The gradual alternation between day and night, which refers to the spherical shape of earth and it’s revolving on its axis relative to the sun.

 

6. Creating the earth’s crust in the form of neighboring plates, and making various different rocks within each plate due to difference in origin, and in geological and chemical characteristics. This result in different kinds of soil formed from rock decomposition (by weathering and erosion) and also results in the variability in their ability to act as a medium for vegetation under different environmental conditions (climatic and topographical).

 

7. Creating gardens of grape vines, and green fields, and date-palms, growing into two or three from a single trunk, or otherwise (one trunk for every palm), watered with the same water; yet Allah makes some of them more favored than others to eat. These facts clearly indicate the diversity of vegetable groups in the same soil, watered with the same water and under the same environmental conditions. It also implies the glory of the diversity of these neighboring sections of land that are different in their rocky and mineral content and encompass different environmental conditions. That diversity has led to different kinds of soil and agricultural environment. Moreover, the diversity of growing plants under the same conditions indicates Allah’s wonder in each plant sprout. Geneticists are beginning to discover these wonders by studying the genomes for each species. They are also investigating the variety in the genetic makeup that results from mating and how it leads to differences in taste, color, size and form of each plant.þ

 

8. Referring to the fact that human bodies decay into dust after death and to its resurrection from dust once again.

 

9. Referring to the fact that Allah the Almighty knows what every female bears, and by how much the wombs fall short (of their time or number) or exceed. Everything with Him is in due proportion.

 

10. Referring to the occurrence of thunder and lightning and their relation to clouds heavy with water.

 

11. Mentioning that everything in the heavens and the earth falls in prostration (submits) to Allah alone, willingly or unwillingly, as do their shadows in the mornings and in the afternoons.þ

 

12. The accurate scientific comparison between darkness and light

 

13. Sending down, by Allah’s Will and Power, water (rain) from the sky in due measure, and its flow in the valleys in due proportion.

 

14. Drawing an analogy between obvious Truth and the benefits for mankind that rests in the earth such as mineral deposits carried by floods; and between Falsehood and the foam that passes away as scum upon the shores or the slag that rises to the surface when precious minerals are melted to purify them from their impurities.þ

 

15. Mention of the reduction of the earth from its outlying borders and using that idea in figures of speech and metaphors.

 

16. Confirming that all Holy Scriptures, prior to the Prophet’s (PBUH) mission, mentioned the coming of the last of the Messengers (PBUH).

 

17. Underlining the value of the intellect and the obligation of using it sincerely and deeply to contemplate our souls and the universe so that we can understand the truth about our existence and our role in life.

 

 

The interpretation of the verse by scholars

 

 

 

* “And in the earth are neighboring tracts, and gardens of grapes, and green crops, and date-palms, growing into two or three from a single trunk, or otherwise (one trunk for every palm), watered with the same water; yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat. Verily, in these things there are Ayât (signs) for the people who understand.”* (TMQ, 13: 4).

 

 

 

Ibn Kathir (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “this means neighboring lands, although one may be good and grows what benefits people the other could be marshy and salty”. The above verse includes all different types of land: Lands that are red, white, yellow, and black, Lands that are hard and the others that are easy, Lands that are thick and others that are thin, and all could be next to one another. Only Allah has the Ability to make this possible, there is no Lord worthy of worship but Him. In the holy verse that can be translated as, *“And in the earth are neighboring tracts, and gardens of grapes, and green crops, and date-palms”*, green crops and date-palms could either be combined (conjugated) directly with "gardens of vines" and hence "gardens" would denote: gardens of vines, gardens of green crops and gardens of date-palms. Or it could be combined with "neighboring tracts" and in that case the elements stated by this verse to be "in the earth" are: neighboring tracts, gardens of vines, green crops and date palms. The word Sen’wan (growing into two or three from a single trunk) refers to branched trunks; and Gha’yr Sen’wan (only one trunk) refers to plants that have a trunk that is not branched. The verse that can be translated as, *“watered with the same water; yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat.”* shows the difference between the types of fruits and plants as regard to their forms, colors, taste, smell, leaves and flowers, although they all use and depend on the same water. All that represents proofs and evidences for the people who understand that Allah the Almighty created diversity among things according to His Will and that is why He says what can be translated as, *“Verily, in these things there are signs for the people who understand.”*

 

 

Some of the scientific implications

 

Following are some scientific facts from the noble verse:

 

First, *“And in the earth are neighboring tracts.”* This inimitable Qur’anic expression includes the following facts:

 

 

 

1. The earth’s crust consists of 12 large neighboring plates in addition to a number of smaller ones. They are separated by a huge network of rifts, the depth of which ranges between 65 and 150 km; their length reaches tens of thousands of kilometers. These plates surround the earth completely like a twisting single crack that scientists liken to the seams on a tennis ball. Every plate in the crust has its own origin and consequently these plates differ in their rocky and mineral content and in their density and thickness.þ

 

 

 

2. Every plate in the crust consists of three main kinds of rocks which are: the igneous, the sedimentary and the metamorphic rocks along with their different combinations, which in turn form neighboring tracts in each plate of the crust. These differ in their natural and chemical properties, in their external appearances as well as in their forms on the surface.þ

 

 

 

The igneous rocks, for example, are divided into acidic, intermediate, basic and ultra-basic groups. In each group there are rocks that exist at profound depth, with high crystallization, and in which crystals reach great sizes (pegmatitic). There are also rocks, which exist in a medium depth from the earth’s surface and consequently their crystallization is medium as well as their crystals’ size (phaneritic). Also, there are the glassy volcanic rocks (meaning they lack crystallization) or are very low in crystallization (aphanitic). The same diversity applies for the sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. Depending on the dominance of any of these rock types, in any part of the rocky cover, differences in the formed neighboring tracts for each of these plates will exist and consequently the same is true throughout the rocky surface of earth.þ

 

 

 

3. There is an apparent difference between the kinds of soil resulting from the erosion of each rock type, which is due to the difference between the rocks’ source and their chemical and mineral content, as well as the differences in environmental circumstances (climate, topography, existing forms of life, etc.). The soil covering each kind of formed rock, from each plate of earth’s covering, differs greatly from one spot to another, taking the form of neighboring tracts. Thus, it gives the land tremendous diversity in its natural and chemical attributes and in its arability.þ

 

 

 

So, the earth differs from once place to another based on differences between neighboring tracts, differences between the plates forming its rocky cover, differences in the kinds of rocks forming each one of those plates, and differences in the kinds of soil resulting from weathering and erosion of each type of rock. All this exists under many environmental circumstances, in different climatic regions and topographies, all the while supporting varied forms of life. Hence, these neighboring tracts vary widely in their arability and in their vegetation that produces different fruits. Research has showed us that every form of life lives in its own environment; and, accordingly, the earth’s cover consists of many domains and ecosystems, each of them distinguished by its geographical characteristics (topographies, climate, kinds of rocks and soils, and its related biological groups). For example, Allah the Almighty has granted some forms of life the ability to coexist with each other; a useful coexistence for the two kinds in order to live in a mutual symbiosis. This coexistence may be useful to only one of them, but at the same time it is not harmful to the other. If it is harmful to the host, we call this a parasitic relationship.

 

 

 

Every living organism has its own habitat, i.e. its location in a specific environmental region, with a specific ecosystem including kinds of rocks and soils, surface topographies, climate conditions, and kinds of coexisting living organisms with which they interact, affect and are themselves affected.

 

 

 

Ecosystems are differently distributed on the earth’s surface. They vary from tropical zones that are distinguished by high temperature and high humidity, to arctic regions characterized by their cold, dry environment, with moderate regions in between. They even vary in the same location between high summits, sloping hills and plains. On summits where height exceeds three thousand meters, life forms are reduced to some algae that grow on ice or pools resulting from molten ice. Tiny flowers spread between rock crevices grow between about 2500-3000 m. Alpine fir trees grow between about 2000-2500 m. Conifer forests grow between about 1500-2000 m. Deciduous forests grow between about 1000-2000 m. Below that, from a thousand meters above sea level, forests and different forms of vegetation spread over the land.

 

 

 

Many of these ecosystems overlap each other in a gradual manner, although some of these ecosystems reach distinct boundaries where the environment changes abruptly. Every ecosystem varies according to that gradual or abrupt change of climatic conditions or to human intervention, which leads to the change of the vegetation or its elimination, or according to animal migration or extinction. All this contributes to the diversity of neighboring tracts that differ in their geology and their physical and chemical attributes. They also differ according to their soils, their environmental conditions, the native life forms and the relative geologic age of the region. þSince these neighboring tracts are in a state of constant change, the noble Qur’anic verse referred to the term tracts as an indefinite noun (tracts) and not as a definite one (the tracts); it is indeed one of many fascinating flares of the verse.

 

 

 

Scientists did not recognize these facts until the last decades of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. The fact that they were mentioned in the Holy Qur’an in the beginning of the seventh century and revealed to an illiterate prophet (PBUH), in a nation that had an overwhelming majority of illiterates, proves without a doubt that the Holy Qur’an is truly the words of Allah, and asserts the prophethood of the Last of the Messengers (may Allah’s blessings and peace be upon him, his family, and Companions and those who followed his guidance and words until the Day of Judgment).þ

 

 

 

Second, *“and gardens of grapes, and green crops, and date-palms.”* The noble verse refers to the following scientific facts about these plants:

 

 

1. *“and gardens of grapes”*

 

The word einab (grape) was mentioned eleven times in the Holy Qur’an, out of which the singular form “grape” (einab and einaban) appears twice and its plural form “grapes” (a’anab and a’anaban) appears nine times. In most cases, the word “palm” was mentioned in singular or plural forms according to the form of the word “grape”. þ

 

 

 

The grape is a very celebrated fruit, not only because of its high sugar content compared to other fruits, but because it also contains many vitamins (A and C), organic substances such as proteins, acids and enzymes. In addition, it contains salts of many elements such as potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, iron, and many other organic and inorganic compounds, which are found in balanced percentages. All these benefits make grapes a very beneficial food and the purest that man can have.þ

 

 

 

Grapes also proved to have a noticeable efficacy in purifying the blood of toxins, wastes, organic and inorganic residues, viruses, fungi and other disease causing germs. This fruit strengthens the immune system, rebuilds damaged cells, especially when eaten on an empty stomach, i.e. after fasting for a whole day and over a five to seven week period.þ The reason for the quick interaction of grapes in the human body is due to its direct absorption without the need for digestion.þ

 

 

 

Grapes have been successfully used in treating many diseases such as gout (arthrolithiasis, rheumatic diseases, Bilharzias (schistosomiasis) related diseases, anemia, digestive and respiratory diseases, liver and bladder infections, internal and external ulcers, mouth and gum infections and tooth cavities, and many kinds of cancers, especially in their initial stages. It has been recently discovered that grapes contain a very effective component for treating cancers and other similar incurable diseases in their different stages. This component is called Resveratrol and it exists—in low levels—in the fruits of seventy- two other plants such as mulberries, peanuts, and in some legumes such as chickpeas, beans and lentils. Dr. Johanna Brandt (who was cured from cancer after eating grapes continuously for nine years) affirmed these facts. She wrote her story in a book titled “The Grape Cure. ISBN 0879040025” The book was published in New York in 1928 and was republished in 1989 as “How to Conquer Cancer, Naturally, ISBN 0930852354”.þ

 

 

 

Mr. Basil Shackleton has also confirmed the great effects of grapes after struggling with the renal failure disease for about forty years. He published a book entitled “The Grape Cure: A Living Testament, ISBN 0722502028” where he mentioned his and Dr. Johanna Brandt’s stories as well as other stories that described the positive effects of grapes in the treatment of many diseases. The book was translated (into Arabic) by Dr. Muhammad Al-Sheikh Omar, printed by Al-Madany Organization (68 Al-Abasia street/Cairo) and distributed for free by Dr. Abd Al-Rahman Omar Nassif’s library (Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). The grape’s juice, concentrated or diluted, is considered one of the strongest antiseptics; its solutions are used in cleansing ears, nose, mouth, and larynx. It can also be used as a sort of dressing in the treatment of wounds and external abscesses. Grapes can be dried to become raisins without loosing any of their nutritional or therapeutic value because raisins retain them for long periods.þ

 

 

 

The great benefits of grapes mentioned above, along with others not yet discovered, might be the reason behind mentioning that particular fruit in the Holy Qur’an in eleven places in ten noble chapters. Vineyards were described as heavens in most of the verses; it was depicted as a heavenly fruit even though heaven is a guarded secret that only Allah the Almighty knows about, its laws and features are different from what we find on earth. Grapes were described as a heavenly fruit in Surat An-Naba’ (The Great News) in order to make it more comprehendible for people, and as an honor for the grapevine and its blessed fruit.þ

 

 

2. *“and green crops, and date-palms”*

 

The word “green crops” here refers to all kind of plants. It was mentioned in this verse and in ten other places in the Holy Qur’an in addition to four other places where it appears as a verb or a subject. The reason behind mentioning this general term “green crops” along with the specific term such as grapes and palms in this particular verse, as well as figs, olives, pomegranates and bananas in other places, is to emphasize their specific importance compared to the rest of fruits and plants.þ

 

 

 

Palms are evergreen trees; their very long trunk ending in a cluster of leaves at its top distinguishes these trees. Palm trees have no branches; the leaves that cover the buds on the top do not fall unless by human intervention. Palms’ fruits (dates), are characterized by their high nutritional value. The percentage of carbohydrates (including simple sugars) in dried dates exceeds 70%; water 13%, fiber 10%, fat up to 2.5%, and mineral salts up to 1.5%. The remaining percentage includes vitamins (A, B and C), proteins, hormones and antibiotics.þ Among these hormones there is one that consists of nine amino acids. It resembles the hormone oxytocin, which plays an important role in the human body (male and female). Oxytocin stops bleeding, stimulates milk production for nursing, facilitates childbirth, heals the uterus after giving birth, stimulates bonds of love and friendship, causes relaxation, and helps to eliminate sadness in both male and female. Dates also contain the estrogen hormone that has many functions; among its important functions is that it regulates the presence of fatty acids and salts in the blood.

 

 

 

Magnesium salts, manganese and iron are very important components of dates. They are found in reasonable amounts and are easily absorbed by the body. Magnesium salts, for instance, have great effects on the glands including the endocrine glands that secrete hormones. They also play a role in calming the nervous system, maintaining the health of bones and teeth, increasing the rate of cell growth, helping in the elasticity of tissues, resisting acid toxins, and in decreasing body temperature. As for manganese, its salts act as a sedative to the nerves, a mood leveler, for anti-anxiety, and to reassure the soul. Iron plays an important role in the construction of hemoglobin and it passes to infants during the breast-feeding process.þ

 

 

 

Thus, the Holy Qur’an focused on the palm due to its importance over other plants and due to its fruit’s characteristics. Therefore, the word palm(s) was mentioned in twenty Quranic verses within sixteen different chapters. Some of these verses mentioned it in the singular form “nakhla” (palm) as it appears twice in Surat Maryam (Mary) to indicate a specific palm. In ten other verses it appears as a definite plural noun “al-nakhl” (the palms), or as an indefinite plural “nakhl” (palms) in seven other verses, and it is mentioned once as “Nakhlan”.þ

 

 

3. *“growing into two or three from a single trunk, or otherwise (one stem root for every palm), watered with the same water; yet some of them We make more excellent than others to eat”*

 

Nowadays, scientists have discovered more than 400,000 species of plants, out of which 250,000 species belong to the flowering plants that Allah the Almighty gave the ability to produce its food through photosynthesis. About 150,000 kinds belong to the non-flowering category and cannot perform photosynthesis so they get their needs through other ways.þ

 

 

 

Diversity between plants of the same species occurs during sexual reproduction as a result of meiotic germ cell division followed by unification of two germ cells from two different individuals one male and the other female. This form of intraspecies variation along with the other interspecies variation takes place until the fruits, grains and vegetable products become numerous so that they fulfill all the life needs on earth.þ

 

 

 

Every plant is strongly influenced by its environment, which is in turn, influenced by its geography (climate, topography, the various kinds of rocks and soils, and the abundance or lack of water). Although plants are influenced by their surroundings, their primary influence comes from their genetic makeup. Essentially, each plant’s genome controls its attributes and its different abilities to use the elements and compounds from the soil. Every plant species, as every other living organism, has a specific number of chromosomes that distinguish it from other plants. Every chromosome carries a number of genes that encode the information necessary for cells to synthesize certain proteins. The diversity of genes from one plant to another leads to the diversity of the proteins produced within the cell, and so their fruits differ in their taste, smell, colors, form and size. Hence, in harmony with its surrounding environment, each plant has an appropriate form, color, and size. Although they can be alike and derive from one species, or can be dissimilar and come from different species, they are still watered by the same water; yet some of them are more favored than others to eat.

 

 

 

The noble verse refers to the sciences of taxonomy, genetics, ecology and geology. These scientific truths did not become evident to mankind until the end of the eighteenth century and in a primitive way. They were not refined until the last decades of the twentieth century. Their existence in the Holy Qur’an, which was revealed at the beginning of the seventh century, and with such scientific accuracy and inclusion, is evidence that it is Allah’s words and also a proof the Prophethood of the last Messenger (PBUH). That is why Allah the Almighty says at the end of the verse what can be translated as, *“Verily, in these things there are Ayât (signs) for the people who understand”*.

 

 

 

May peace and blessings be upon the Prophet Muhammad, his family, his Companions and all those who follow his guidance until the last day and all praise is for Allah, the Lord of all creation.

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28095Sun, 02 Apr 2006 04:46:36 +0000
Three Veils Of Darknesshttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/28094-three-veils-of-darkness/"He creates you in the wombs of your mothers in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness.” (TMQ Surat Az-Zumar 39:06)[1]

 

 

 

This miraculous Qur’anic ayah appears in the first eighth of Surat Az-Zumar. Surat Az-Zumar is a Makkan Surah, made up of 75 ayahs after the “Basmallah” (invocation of the name of Allah). The Surah is called Az-Zumar (meaning: The Groups) due to the appearance of reference to how people are separated, according to their deeds, into two groups on the Day of Judgment. One group makes up the residents of Paradise and the other group is comprised of the residents of Hell. Each of which will be led to his inevitable fate.

 

 

 

The main theme of the noble Surah is the Islamic creed, as is the case with all Makkan Surahs.

 

 

 

Signs of creation in Surat Az-Zumar:

 

 

 

(1) Description of the process of creation of the heavens and earth as having been accomplished in conformity with truth and in agreement with reality. That is to say, the creation process followed precise rules and laws, which proves that its Creator, Allah (SWT) (the glorified and exalted) is al-haqq (the Truth).

 

(2) The precise implied reference to the spherical shape of the earth; to its rotation around its own axis and to its travel or “running” in its orbit around the sun; and to the travel or “running” of the earth, moon and sun (and accordingly of all celestial bodies) in space until a predetermined point in time, which indicates the inevitability of the Hereafter.

 

(3) Affirmation that the creation of all human beings is from one person/one soul, which is that of our father Adam (AS) (peace be upon him), out of which his pair/mate/wife, our mother Hawaa’ “Eve” (AS), was created.

 

(4) Mention of the supply of man with eight pairs of cattle [sheep, goats, oxen and camel; a pair of each: male and female], which might be a reference to the creation of their genetic code, or to the Devine order for them to be created.

 

(5) Affirmation that the creation and development of the human embryo is in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness.

 

(6) Emphasis on the fact that those who know cannot be equated to those who do not know. Moreover, the assertion that only men of hearts and minds (intellect, reason and understanding) are those who contemplate, understand and will remember (i.e. will learn a lesson from Allah’s (SWT) signs and ayahs).

 

(7) Reference to the fact that the origin of the water that exists underneath the earth’s surface is rainwater. Allah (SWT) directs its course through the earth to form springs and water channels. By its means, Allah (SWT) produces plants that are varied in color and kind. Then after the plants flourish, they lose their blossom, dry up after they had once flourished and lose their natural color turning yellow. Then they become brittle and crack into pieces. This contains reference to the cycle of life and death in every creature and in everything.

 

(8) Reference to the fact that the soul leaves the body in both states of sleep and death. At the moment of death the soul is taken from the body and kept from returning to it. While in the state of sleep, the soul is returned back to the sleeper the moment he wakes up.

 

(9) Affirmation that Allah (SWT) is the One who created everything and that He is the Trustee/Guardian of everything.

 

 

 

Each of the above points requires a separate analysis; therefore, I will focus the discussion in this article on point (5) of the above list, which appears in the sixth ayah of Surat Az-Zumar. Before presenting its scientific implication, I will review a number of interpretations from scholars of Qur’anic exegesis of this noble Qur’anic text.

 

 

 

The interpretation of the following ayah by scholars:

 

 

 

*“He creates you in the wombs of your mothers in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness.”* (TMQ 39:06).

 

 

 

The summary of Ibn Kathir’s interpretation (may Allah have mercy on him) of this ayah is as follows: It means, Allah (SWT) preordained you in your mother’s wombs (in stages, one after another); each of you is first a nutfa (gamete: reproductive cell, whether sperm or ovum), then it develops into a ‘alaqa (leech-like clot), then into a mudgha (the form of a chewed-up morsel) and then he is shaped and formed with the development of bones, flesh, nerves and veins. Afterwards, the soul is blown into him and he becomes a different creation (glorified be Allah and extolled be His glorious attributes; He is the Unique Creator).

 

 

 

The summary of the interpretation of the ayah in Dhilal Al Qur’an (may Allah have mercy on its author) is as follows: The development from a nutfa, into an ‘alaqa, into a mudgha, into bones. Then the embryo develops into a creation where the human element is clearly apparent. *“…in three veils of darkness”* means the darkness of the sack surrounding the embryo, the darkness of the womb in which this sack lays and the darkness of the abdomen in which the womb lies.

 

 

 

Scientific implications of this noble Qur’anic text:

 

 

 

I. Scientific implications in the part of the ayah that says, *“He creates you in the wombs of your mothers in stages, one after another…”* (TMQ 39:06):

 

 

 

At a time when it was widely believed that the human embryo was created only from the blood of the menstrual cycle, or only from the male’s emitted fluid, the Qur’an was revealed affirming that both the male and female reproductive cells (gametes) are involved in the formation of the embryo. This appears in many ayahs, of which we choose some of what Allah (SWT) says, which can be translated in the following:

 

 

 

(1)*“O mankind! If you have doubt about Resurrection, then verily We have created you from dust, then from a nutfa (gamete), then from a ‘alaqa (leech-like clot), then from a mudgha (chewed-up morsel), formed and unformed, in order that We may manifest (Our omnipotence) to you. And We cause whom We will to remain in the wombs for an appointed term, then we bring you out as infants

 

(2) (new born) baby…”* (TMQ 22:05).

 

 

 

(3)*“And indeed We created man (Adam) out of an extract of clay (water and earth). Thereafter, We made him(the offspring of Adam) as a nutfa (a gamete) (which we embedded) in a safe, secure lodging (the womb of the woman). Then We made the nutfa (develop) into a ‘alaqa (leech-like clot), then We made the ‘alaqa (develop) into a mudgha (chewed-up morsel), then We made the mudgha (develop) into bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh. And then we brought it forth as another creation. Glorified be Allah and extolled be His glorious attributes; He is the Unique Creator” *(TMQ 23:12-14).

 

 

 

(4)*“It is He (Allah), Who created you from dust, then He made you from a nutfa (gamete) then from a ‘alaqa (leech-like clot)…” *(TMQ 40:67).

 

 

 

(5)*“And that it is He (Allah) Who created pairs, male and female, from a nutfa (gamete) when it is emitted.”* (TMQ 53:45-46).

 

 

 

(6) *“Does man think he could do what he wills (and act without restriction or limitation and neglect his duties and obligations towards Allah) and get away with it? Was he not a nutfa (gamete) in a fluid that is emitted? Which developed into a ‘alaqa (leech-like clot), then (Allah) molded and fashioned (him) in due proportions. And made of him the pair, male and female.”* (TMQ 75:36-39).

 

 

 

(7)*“We created man from a nutfa amshaj (zygote), in order to try him, so We endowed him with (the gifts of) hearing and sight.”*(TMQ 76:02).

 

 

 

(8)*“From a nutfa (gamete) He created him and then molds him in due proportions.”* (TMQ 80:07).

 

 

 

The noble Qur’an was revealed with this clear truth, with this accurate, complete and comprehensive description of the stages of the human embryonic development. These stages do not in most cases exceed one to a few millimeters in length. This was more than 1,400 years ago, at a time when there were no means of magnification, photography or internal medical examination available. This attests to the fact that the noble Qur’an cannot be a human fabrication, but that it is the words of Allah (SWT), the Creator.

 

 

 

The majority of mankind continued to believe in their incorrect ideas that the embryo is created from the blood of the menstrual cycle as a spontaneous self-creation. This self-creation was perceived to be pre-shaped in the form of a fully developed human being, which starts as a minute version that is almost inconspicuous to the naked eye. Furthermore, they believed that with time, it starts to grow in size until the fetus size is fully developed.

 

 

 

The above ideas, whose source was a very vivid imagination, continued to dominate the minds of most people on earth until the end of the 17th Century AD. In 1677, the Dutch scientist Anton van Leeuwenhoek was able, with the aid of his fellow scientist Louis Dominicus Hamm, to see spermatozoa (sperm cells) for the first time under a microscope. Two centuries later (at the end of the 19th Century AD), an ovum (egg cell) of a mammal was first seen. Almost at the same time, at around 1865-1869, the Austrian botanist Gregor Mendel formulated a preliminary idea of the mechanism of heredity of traits through a number of experiments and observations that he conducted on the common pea plant. From which he concluded, that the process of inheritance of traits, meaning the transmission of characteristics from one generation to the next, occurs through a number of hereditary units or factors that are infinitely small in size, which later came to be known as genes. Genes remained to be referred to simply in the form of symbols used in the clarification of the process of variety of creation until the second decade of the beginning of the 20th century. In 1912, the American biologist Thomas Hunt Morgan proved that genes are actual parts of a number of thread-like particles that are infinitely small in size and fineness and thinness, found inside the nucleus of a living cell, known as chromosomes. Chromosomes are so called due to their incredible ability to acquire the characteristic added to the cell in a much more apparent way than other parts of the cell.

 

 

 

Through Morgan’s study of chromosomes in human cells, he was able to identify the reproductive chromosome and suggested the idea of genetic mapping for living organisms (i.e. drawing detailed genetic maps for chromosomes) considering that chromosomes are responsible for the transmission of characteristics from parents to child.

 

 

 

In 1955, the American scientist James Watson and the British scientist Francis Crick were able to identify the chemical composition of chromosomes and proved that it is a molecule made of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), which determines the genetic code of each living organism.

 

 

 

With the development of scientific equipment during the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, embryology was immensely developed. With every step forward that embryology took, it proved the truth of what appears in Allah’s (SWT) book (the Qur’an) and in the Sunnah of the Seal of His Prophets (BPUH). That is, that the human embryo is created from the union and fusion of the male and female nutfas (gametes), to form together the nutfa amshaj (mixed gamete i.e. zygote), in which Allah (SWT) preordains the creation of the embryo. Furthermore, that from the nutfa amshaj, embryos develop in the wombs of their mothers over several consecutive stages of development, which modern science, despite its unprecedented advancement, was not able to name appropriately. Modern science only expresses the developmental stages through the gestational age of the embryo (the number of days that the embryo has been in the womb). The Qur’an however, named the developmental stages as follows: a nutfa (gamete), then an ‘alaqa (leech-like clot), then a mudgha (chewed-up morsel), then bones, then the bones are clothed with flesh, then the development of the embryo into a different creation (glorified be Allah and extolled be His glorious attributes; He is the Unique Creator).

 

 

 

II. Scientific implications in the part of the ayah that says, *“He creates you …in stages, one after another…”* (TMQ 39:06):

 

 

 

While most people on earth held the incorrect belief that a human being is spontaneously self-created in a pre-shaped form that corresponds to a fully developed human being, however is a minute version of it that is almost inconspicuous to the naked eye. Further believing that with time it grows in size until the size of fetus is fully developed. At a time when such beliefs were widespread, the Qur’an came and affirmed that creation occurs over consecutive stages. The expression referring to the embryonic developmental stages in the ayah is *“…in stages, one after another…”* (TMQ 39:06). The Qur’an details and divides the embryonic developmental stages into seven consecutive stages, which embryological studies in the recent few decades have proven and confirmed. The Qur’an named the stages with certain specific names as follows:

 

 

 

(1) The nutfa stage:

 

The expression “nutfa”, which Allah (SWT) uses in the Qur’an to denote a reproductive cell (gamete), linguistically (in the Arabic language), means a little water that ranges from one drop to a few drops. The Qur’an uses it to indicate a gamete, whether male (sperm) or female (ovum).

 

 

 

(2) The nutfa amshaj stage:

 

The expression “nutfa amshaj”, which Allah (SWT) uses in the Qur’an to denote the zygote, linguistically (in the Arabic language) means a mixed nutfa or mixed gamete. The noun nutfa appears in the singular form, while the adjective amshaj (mixed) appears in the plural form. The plural form is used to indicate that the mixing is of more than two things [note: number in Arabic grammar has three forms: singular, dual and plural]. As such, the word amshaj appears in the plural form due to the fact that the things that mix are not only the male and female gametes, but also the contents of each of them. The most important content of the cell is the genetic information or the genetic code [which is contained in the cell’s DNA, found in chromosomes in the cell’s nucleus]. One normal human cell contains 18.6 billion chemical molecules of DNA subunits, which are nitrogenous bases, sugars and phosphates. Each reproductive cell has half that number of DNA subunits.

 

 

 

The total number of chromosomes and the chemical molecules they contain, which determine the genetic code of the embryo, are completed by means of Allah’s (SWT) preordainment. Modern science refers to it as genetic programming. Hours after the fertilization of the ovum (which contains 23 chromosomes) by the sperm (which contains the same number of chromosomes) the total number of chromosomes, characteristic of a human being, is complete (46 chromosomes in 23 pairs). During this merging process (between the ovum and sperm), the characters (traits) which the embryo will inherit from his parents and which will appear on him after he is fully developed, known as the dominant characters, are determined. Other characters become recessive and might appear in future generations; these are known as recessive characters. This occurs because each character is inherited twice, once from the father and the ancestors from his side and another time from the mother and the ancestors from her side; therefore, one character becomes dominant and the other becomes recessive as per Allah’s (SWT) preordainment. As such, the characters of the embryo are preordained in the zygote stage. That is why, Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as, *“Woe be to (disbelieving) man, how ungrateful he is ! From what thing did He (Allah) create him? From a nutfa (gamete) He created him and then sit him in due proportions.”* (TMQ 80:17-19).

 

 

 

Allah’s (SWT) preordainment extends over generations to reach the early ancestors until it reaches our father Adam (AS) and our mother Hawaa’ (AS). It is quite miraculous how the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) referred to this fact more than 12 centuries before anything was ever known about the laws of genetics. As narrated by Ibn Jarir and Ibn Abu-Hatem, the Prophet (PBUH) asked a man, “What is the gender of your new born baby?” The man replied, “O Messenger of Allah, what could it possibly be? It could only be a boy or a girl!” The Prophet (PBUH) asked, “So who does he resemble?” The man replied, “O Messenger of Allah, who could he possibly resemble? He can only resemble either his father or his mother!” The Prophet (PBUH) said, “Oh, don’t say such things. When the nutfa (gamete) settles in the womb, Allah (SWT) supplies it with every lineage between it and Adam. Have you not read the following ayah in Allah’s book (the Qur’an),* “In whatever form He wills, He puts you together”* (TMQ 82:8). Then the Prophet further clarified, “Meaning: He shapes you.”

 

 

 

The expression “nutfa amshaj” is the first scientifically accurate expression referring to the creation of the embryo through the union of the male and female nutfas. This truth has not been realized by modern science except in the late 18th century (in 1775 A.D- 1186 A.H). The preordainment that occurs in the fertilization process also determines the gender of the baby. In this concern Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as,* “And that it is He (Allah) Who created pairs, male and female, from a nutfa (gamete) when it is emitted.”* (TMQ 53:45-46).

 

 

 

After the preordainment process, the zygote starts to quickly divide into smaller cells until it becomes a spherical mass of cells known as morula. Then the morula differentiates into surface cells called the trophectoderm (which would become the placenta) and inner cells, called the inner cell mass (which would become the embryo), forming what is known as the blastocyst. The blastocyst starts implanting itself in the lining of the uterus (womb) on the sixth day after fertilization. This stage is known as the implantation stage. It takes a full week to 14 days for the blastocyst to become implanted in the lining of the uterus. After the implantation process is complete, the embryo transforms from a nutfa amshaj into an ‘alaqa.

 

 

 

(3) The ‘alaqa stage:

 

Just as the blastocyst successfully implants itself and clings to the lining of the uterus through the primitive placenta which later becomes the umbilical cord, the ‘alaqa stage starts (from day 15 to day 25). The ‘alaqa stage is characterized by fast growth, multiplicity of cells, the beginning of the formation of organs and the elongation of the embryo to take the form of a leech [A leech is a bloodsucking aquatic or terrestrial worm]. The embryo resembles the leech in its shape, as well as in the way that it “leeches on to” or clings to the lining of the uterus (just as a leech clings to the body of the host that it preys on). It also resembles the leech in its feeding on the mother’s blood (just as a leech feeds on the blood of the host animal that it clings to). Accordingly, the term “‘alaqa” that the Qur’an uses to express this embryonic stage is a miraculous scientific precedence at an age where no means of magnification or photography or examination was available, especially not of an embryonic stage that ranges from 0.7 to 3.5 millimeters in length.

 

 

 

(4) The mudgha stage:

 

The mudgha stage starts with the appearance of several somites (one of the longitudinal parts to which a body is divided) on the body of the ‘alaqa. Somites begin with a single somite that appears in the middle of the 4th week of gestation and reach around 40 to 45 somites. By the beginning of the fifth week, the ‘alaqa is transformed into the mudgha stage because the embryo appears in the latter stage like a chewed-up morsel of flesh, on which the imprints of the teeth of the chewer remain, just as teeth imprints remain on a piece of chewed gum. As such, the precedence of the Qur’an in describing this stage, which does not exceed (by the end of it) 1 centimeter in length, using the expression “mudgha” is as miraculous as can be. It is miraculous because at the time of the revelation of the Qur’an, no human being could have ever possibly known or have come to realize this fact; and not for another 12 centuries!

 

 

 

(5) The stage of bones:

 

During the 7th week of gestation, the skeleton starts to spread in the body of the embryo through the gradual ossification of the cartilaginous structures, which are formed during the mudgha stage around several organ/limb buds. With the formation of bones, the trunk of the embryo starts to straighten (the embryo’s length now ranges between 14 and 20 millimeters), the tips of fingers are protruding and the tips of toes start to protrude [in the form of ridges in the hand and feet plates called digital rays]. Furthermore, cerebral vesicles are prominent [these are swellings in the neural tube to form the brain]. The indication of the Qur’an that bones are developed in a stage th

 

at follows the stage of the mudgha is again a miraculous scientific precedence, as no one could have possibly realized this true fact before the 20th century.

 

 

 

(6) The stage of clothing the bones with muscles and flesh:

 

During the 8th week of gestation, the process of clothing of bones with muscles and flesh begins. In this stage, the length of the embryo is between 22 and 31 millimeters. Most muscle cells are created from the mesoderm layer developed in the mudgha stage. The mesoderm is the middle layer of the three germ layers [the germ layers are the layers into which the cells of the mudgha, which will eventually give rise to all structures of the body, differentiate]. The muscle cells develop from the grooves between somites in the mudgha, therefore muscles are created in divisions. The divisions move away from the area of the somite groove, then grow and connect together forming several muscle threads, fibers and tubes. Muscles gradually organize in certain bundles, clothing and encircling the bones and connecting to the bone membrane forming what is known as the dorsal, ventral and limb muscle tissue. Each section of muscle tissue is supplied with a branch from the spinal cord. Again, the Qur’an’s precedence in mentioning this fact (that bones are clothed with muscles and flesh in this stage) is quite miraculous!

 

 

 

(7) The stage of development and growth [into a different creation]:

 

This stage starts from the 9th week of gestation and extends until the end of the pregnancy term. In this stage, the bodily characteristics of the fetus (what the embryo transforms into) start to become more distinguishable. This is due to the development of all organs and systems to completion; which start to actively function in coordination with one another in a remarkable way.

 

 

 

In this stage, the fetus starts to grow slowly until the beginning of the 12th week, after which growth in size accelerates. Moreover, changes in appearance take place at high rates; the eyes move to the front of the face, the ears move from the neck to the head, legs elongate in a noticeable way and the length of the fetus ranges between 33 and 500 millimeters.

 

 

 

The above seven consecutive stages of embryogenesis are confirmed through modern embryological studies which themselves only distinguish between the different stages using the gestational age of the embryo or fetus due to their inability to provide accurate nomenclature for the specific stages. In that regard, however, the Qur’an pioneered in naming, describing and ordering the stages in a highly accurate fashion. This happened 14 centuries ago and in the absence of any means of magnification, photography or internal medical examination. This proves, without any doubt, that the noble Qur’an is indeed the words of Allah (SWT), the Creator, Who revealed it with His knowledge to the Seal of His Prophets and protected it, as He promised, in the same language of its revelation (the Arabic language), over a period of 12 centuries past and until the Day of Judgment. Furthermore, this also attests to the Prophethood of the Seal of Prophets and Messengers to whom the Qur’an was revealed.

 

 

 

III. Scientific implications in the part of the ayah that says, *“He creates you …in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness.”*(TMQ 39:06):

 

 

 

The fetus is surrounded inside the uterus by several membranes. From the inner to the outer membrane, these are: The amion membrane, the chorion membrane and the decidua membrane. These three membranes completely enclose the fetus and therefore keep it in complete darkness; this is the first darkness. The three membranes of the fetus are themselves surrounded by the walls of the uterus, which is a thick wall made up of three layers; forming the second complete darkness surround the fetus and its membranes. The uterus, which contains the fetus and its membranes and surrounds it in two consecutive darkness’s, is itself found in the middle of the pelvis. The uterus is in turn fully surrounded by the body that is composed of the abdomen and the back. Both of the abdomen and back provide the third darkness in which the fetus lies. This is in agreement with what Allah (SWT) says; which can be translated as, *“He creates you in the wombs of your mothers in stages, one after another, in three veils of darkness.”* (TMQ 39:06).

 

 

 

At the time of the revelation of the Qur’an and for many long centuries after, no one knew of these three veils of darkness. The precedence of the noble Qur’an in referring to them proves, without a shadow of a doubt, that the noble Qur’an is indeed the words of Allah (SWT), the Creator, Who revealed it with His knowledge to the Seal of His Prophets and protected it, as He promised, in the same language of its revelation (the Arabic language). In order to remain as evidence against people until the Day of Judgment, however most people do not know or do not comprehend

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28094Sun, 02 Apr 2006 04:45:09 +0000
Water From The Sky, Vegetation, Green Stalkshttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/27755-water-from-the-sky-vegetation-green-stalks/“It is He Who sends down water (rain) from the sky, and with it we bring forth vegetation of all kinds, and out of it We bring forth green stalks, from which We bring forth thick clustered grain.” (TMQ, Al-An’am - The Cattle: 99)

 

 

 

Surat Al-An’am was revealed in Makkah and is one of the longest chapters in the Qur’an with 165 verses. This surah gets its name from the many references it makes to cattle. One of the main attributes of this surah is that it was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) at one time. It deals mainly with Islamic doctrines and legislation and mentions the stories of some of the prophets and messengers who came before Muhammad (PBUH) and of some previous nations. A number of verses that refer to signs of creation and the divine creative ability of Allah prove that the stories mentioned in this surah are real and bear witness to His Oneness, exclusive of partners, peers, rivals, companions or offspring.

 

 

 

Surat Al-An’am begins with the verse that can be translated as, *“All praises and thanks be to Allah, Who (Alone) created the heavens and the earth, and originated the darkness and the light; yet those who disbelieve hold others as equal with their Lord.”* This verse means that the disbelievers liken The Creator, Protector, Lord and Sovereign of the heavens, the earth and all that is in them to the creatures they worship or the idols they have created themselves. The surah rejects this disgraceful attitude of the disbelievers and polytheists. It emphasizes the fact that it is Allah (SWT) who created man from earth and determined the moment of death and resurrection for all creatures. Many people, however, deny the resurrection and doubt its inevitability.

 

 

Signs of creation in Surat Al-An’am

 

1. Allah created the heavens and the earth in truth and made the darkness and light, with reference to the fact that darkness was first in the universe.

2. He created man from clay.

3. Reference to creatures who walk in the day and the night.

4. Reference to the possibility of classifying animals.

5. Anticipation of contemporary technological and scientific advancement and that it will be a test for the disbelievers.

6. The comparison between sleep and death and wakening from sleep and the resurrection after death.

7. Reference to the central position of Makkah in relation to the heavens and the earth.

8. Reference to the fact that it is Allah (SWT) who causes seeds and fruit stones to split and sprout and that He brings forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living.

9. Affirmation that it is Allah (SWT) who brings about the new day and that it is He who has appointed the night for resting and the sun and the moon for calculating the time. This is a reference to the precision of their rotation and the possibility of using their rotation to mark time and make calendars.

10. Reference to the fact that it is Allah (SWT) who has made the stars to guide us through the darkness of the land and sea.

11. Confirmation that Allah (SWT) created mankind from a single person (Adam) and gave him a place of residence and of burial on the Earth.

12. Reference to the fact that it is Allah (SWT) who sends down rain from the sky and brings forth vegetation of all kinds, producing stalks and grain.

13. Reference to the creation of palm-trees and its spadix, which is the first thing to appear, out of which hang clusters of dates and the creation of gardens full of grapes, olives and pomegranates, each are similar but different in variety and taste. Some of these gardens have espaliers and others do not.

14. Confirmation of the reality of creation and that it is Allah (SWT) who created everything.

15. Reference to the fact that pressure and oxygen decrease with height, making it difficult to breath.

16. Confirmation that there are things unseen to us of which only Allah (SWT) Has knowledge.

 

 

 

Each of these items needs to be addressed individually, thus I shall focus my discussion on the twelfth point above which talks about chlorophyll (the substance that makes plants green) and photosynthesis which is essential for plants to produce seeds. Before addressing this point, I will first mention some interpretations of this verse by classical and contemporary scholars.

Interpretations of the verse by scholars

 

Botanists have commented on this verse saying that it sheds light on the way plants are created and develop at different stages until they reach complete maturity and contain all the fats, proteins and carbohydrates they require. This is all synthesized in sunlight through the presence of a green substance called chlorophyll, found in all green plants and particularly in their leaves. This is where these compounds are synthesized and then distributed to seeds and fruits. Moreover, the verse affirms that rainwater is the only source of fresh water on earth and solar energy is the source of energy for all living creatures. Plants, however, can only store solar energy through chlorophyll and then pass it on to humans and animals through the organic nutrients they synthesize. Science has revealed an amazing fact that proves the Oneness of the Creator; hemoglobin, which is necessary for respiration in both humans and animals, is similar to chlorophyll. The active sites of both hemoglobin and chlorophyll are a porphin molecule. In hemoglobin, carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms of this porphin molecule enclose an iron atom while in chlorophyll it encloses a magnesium atom. Medical research has also proved that once chlorophyll has been metabolized by the human body it is assimilated into its tissues, strengthens them and helps them destroy bacteria, providing protection against diseases. At the end of this verse, Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as, *“Look at their fruits when they begin to bear, and the ripeness thereof.”* This reference preceded modern botany in relying on the examination of the external form of plant organs in their different stages.

 

 

 

In Safwat al-Tafassir, Allah says what can be translated as, *“It is He Who sends down water (rain) from the sky, and with it We bring forth vegetation of all kinds”*. Allah (SWT) sends down rain from clouds bringing forth all vegetation, such as fruits, legumes, grass and trees; *“and out of it We bring forth green stalks,”* meaning that we bring forth a tender green part; *“from which We bring forth thick clustered grain,”* meaning that we bring forth grains clustered one on top of each other like spikes of barley and wheat. Ibn Abbas said: “It means wheat, barley, corn and rice”.

The scientific implications of the verse

 

 

*“It is He Who sends down water (rain) from the sky,”*

 

 

 

The process of precipitation involves the wind blowing and passing by water sources filled with water vapor. Clouds are formed due to the elevation of this wind that reaches the upper parts of the sky where weather variations occur. These clouds are enriched through the water cycle around the earth with water vapor resulting from volcano eruptions, vaporization of water by sunrays, plant transpiration, human and animal excretion and breathing. The ascension of water vapor helps it to condense because of the drop in pressure and temperature. Rain clouds are then formed, by the will of Allah, as the size of the water drops becomes greater and the vapor becomes more condensed and falls as rain, hail, or snow.

 

 

 

By the will of Allah, wind plays a very important role in this process. The levels of moisture, temperature and wind speed and the size of the condensation nucleus (dust and salts particles, tiny snow crystals, etc.) determine the degree of its importance, until it reaches saturation at a certain temperature degree and atmospheric pressure. Air, at that point, cannot hold any more vapors so it falls as rain in the amount and at the location determined by Allah (SWT) in His Knowledge and Wisdom. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “No one knows when it will rain but Allah. “ (Fateh A- Bari)

 

 

*“ and with it We bring forth vegetation of all kinds,”*

 

 

 

Allah (SWT) has willed that once ripe, seeds are transported away from the mother plant in order to disperse horizontally for the better distribution of plants and to prevent competition for their vital sources of soil, water and sun light. This dispersion is achieved either by the fruits bursting or by the seeds being transported by the air, water or animals who eat fruit, move to a different place and then release the seeds in their excrement or store them in zones where they can germinate properly. Seeds can also move hanging on to an animal’s fur. Allah (SWT) has provided seeds with wings, borders or the ability to float, enabling them to scatter widely across the surface of the ground. When Allah (SWT) sends down rain, water reaches these buried seeds and they start to germinate. They absorb water and swell, causing the seed’s coat to rip apart allowing a radicle and a plumule to grow out. The radicle goes down through the soil to fasten itself and the plumule moves up to the surface. The first leaves to appear on the stalk are called cotyledons; they are more transparent than the real ones. This small plant is called a seedling and is nourished by the nutrients stored in the seeds until the real leaves grow. These plants have been given the ability to produce food for the growing plants through photosynthesis until they flower and become ready to produce fruits and seeds. We now know of more than a quarter of a million flowering plants (angiosperms) as well as of a large number of non-flowering ones.

 

 

*“and out of it We bring forth green stalks”*

 

 

 

As soon as the leaves appear on the growing plants (seedling), Allah provides them with a green pigment called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll has the ability to absorb a certain amount of solar energy and convert it into chemical energy. It uses this chemical energy to make carbohydrates out of the water absorbed by the roots and carbon dioxide, which plants absorb from air, producing oxygen in return. As for aquatic plants, especially those completely submerged under water, they get carbon dioxide from the portion dissolved in water. This later reaches very tiny organelles called chloroplasts which are either dissolved or are part of

 

bicarbonate salts. This last process is also called carbon fixation because of the importance of carbon in forming carbohydrates.

 

 

 

There are eight types of chlorophyll and it is very similar to hemoglobin insofar as its chemical structure is concerned; it has a magnesium atom whereas an iron atom is found in hemoglobin.

 

 

 

Chloroplasts are found in long vertical cells adjacent to the leaf wall. Allah (SWT) gave them the ability to move freely inside the cell in order to absorb as much light as possible. Plants absorb carbon dioxide from air through their leaves and water with the sap from the soil through its roots by capillarity rise to reach the top of the plant. Chlorophyll collects energy from sunrays and uses it to dissociate water, releasing oxygen which is released into the air through the stomata in the leaves and hydrogen which combined with carbon dioxide to make sugars, starches and other carbohydrates. This process, in which the chlorophyll plays a major role, takes place over many stages. Enzymes participate in this process to complete it. Most of the carbohydrates formed by photosynthesis are used as nutrients by the plants in order to provide the energy they need to grow. The excess carbohydrates are stored inside cells and are used later to make fruit, grain and seeds. Plants get the energy they need from their food in a reverse process to photosynthesis, called respiration. In this process, carbohydrates and oxygen combine to release energy out and carbon dioxide fuses with water as follows:

 

· Photosynthesis.

 

· Carbon dioxide + water + energy.

 

· Carbohydrate + oxygen.

 

· Respiration.

 

 

 

Depending to the abundance or shortage of light, one of the processes takes place at the expense of the other; when there is a lot of light, photosynthesis speeds up and produces more carbohydrates and oxygen than is consumed during respiration. However, when it is completely dark, respiration speeds up and consumes carbohydrates to release energy as well as carbon dioxide and water. At dawn and dusk, the two processes reach equilibrium; photosynthesis produces enough carbohydrates and oxygen for respiration while the latter produces the energy, carbon dioxide and water needed for photosynthesis.

 

 

*“From which We bring forth thick clustered grain.”*

 

 

 

Seeds in angiosperms are produced as a result of fertilization. A seed contains the embryo of a new plant and a reserve of food that is sufficient for it until it is able to produce its own food. These seeds can be the fruit of the plant or can be enclosed within a fruit, which in either case can then be dispersed to produce new plants or collected by people and animals. Seeds are generally protected by a seed coat that contains a hilum, which indicates the place of attachment of the ovules to the wall of the ovary. We can also see a small pore, the micropyle, which marks the entry site of the pollen tube during fertilization and is where water passes through to the embryo. This later is made up of the epicotyl (future shoot system), hypcotyl, and the radicle (embryonic root).

 

 

 

Caryopsis are the fruit of all cereals such as wheat, barley, oat, corn, rice and other monocotyledonae belonging to the gramineae family which consist of approximately 7000 species. Such plants are very successful in that they cover a larger area than any other plants. They are also the major food source for both humans and herbivores.

 

These grains consist mainly of carbohydrates that are synthesized as a result of chlorophyll-mediated photosynthesis inside chloroplasts (which give plants its green color). One is amazed by this verse revealed 1400 years ago, stating what can be translated as, *“It is He Who sends down water (rain) from the sky, and with it We bring forth vegetation of all kinds, and out of it We bring forth green stalks, from which We bring forth thick clustered grain.”*

 

 

 

This verse links germination and precipitation (of water) as well as the vitality of angiosperms (flowering plants, which most plants are) and their ability to produce their own food via chlorophyll-mediated photosynthesis in their green stalks. The verse goes further in linking grains and the properties of green (chlorophyll rich) plant parts. This is very accurate as the excess carbohydrates produced in the green parts of plants by photosynthesis are stored in the grain. Through research and acquired knowledge, mankind has only learned these facts in the twentieth century! Their mention in the Qur’an in such a thorough and precise manner fourteen centuries ago is confirmation of the fact that the Qur’an is Allah’s word revealed to the last of His prophets and messengers and is preserved in the language in which it was revealed in (Arabic).

 

 

 

Praise be to Allah (SWT) who revealed the Noble Qur’an, and peace and blessings upon the Prophet who received it and transmitted it with complete honesty and devotion. May Allah (SWT) grant him the best rewards and award him Al Wassilah (a rank in paradise) and Al Fadilah and the sublime, high ranks He had promised him, for Allah (SWT) never breaks His promise.

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27755Fri, 24 Mar 2006 19:48:28 +0000
And Of Everything We Have Created Pairshttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/27754-and-of-everything-we-have-created-pairs/"And of everything We have created pairs, that you may remember (and hopefully ponder)” (TMQ, Adh-Dhariyat, 51:49)[1]

 

 

 

This Qur’anic ayah appears in the last fifth of Surat Adh-Dhariyat, which is a Makkan Surah that contains 60 ayahs. The main topic of the Surah is the Islamic creed.

 

 

 

Signs of creation in Surat Adh-Dhariyat:

 

 

 

Surat Adh-Dhariyat reviews a number of signs of creation, from which the vast divine power of creation can be inferred and which bear witness to the fact that the One Who originally created this universe is capable of annihilating it and recreating it again (i.e. resurrecting it). The issue of resurrection was a major argument of those who disbelieved in the Day of Judgment throughout history. The following are the signs of creation that appear in the surah:

 

 

 

(1) Allah (SWT) swears by the winds that He employs to blow away and scatter dust and the role of that in the erosion of rocks, the leveling of the earth’s surface, the formation of the soil and the propagation of clouds; and which He employs to carry pollens and the role of that in the pollination of plants.

 

(2) Allah (SWT) also swears by the clouds that bear the heavy weight of water vapor and which He causes to fall as rain, according to His judgment and knowledge, where He wills, in the amount that He wills, at the time that He wills, as a mercy from Him or as a punishment and chastisement.

 

(3) Allah (SWT) also swears by the ships that easily float on the surface of the water. If it were not for the special properties that Allah (SWT) gave water, the ships would not have so easily and gently sailed on its surface.

 

(4) Allah (SWT) also swears by the angels that deliver Allah’s decrees in the universe, according to His divine orders and will. The angels carry the divine orders and execute them according to the will of Allah (SWT) among His creatures and within the universe, in extreme precision and discipline. Moreover, although the angles are among the transcendental things that we cannot see their effect in the universe is undeniably perceived and cannot be ignored.

 

(5) Allah (SWT) swears by the heavens that are build according to precise laws and principles and which are full of pathways (orbits in which celestial bodies move), which are also built to precision, and whose parts are in perfect and masterful intactness and unity with one another and which have limitless variability in their density.

 

(6) Allah (SWT) confirms that the earth contains countless obvious signs of miraculous nature that serve to demonstrate Allah’s omnipotence, power and authority, which are recognized by those whose hearts are seeking faith with certainty, in the ayah which can be translated as, *“And on the earth are signs for those who have Faith with certainty”*. (TMQ, Adh-Dhariyat, 51: 20)

 

(7) Allah (SWT) confirms the countless miraculous signs in the creation of human beings in the ayah which can be translated as, *“And signs within yourselves, can you not see?”* (TMQ, Adh-Dhariyat, 51: 21)

 

(8) Allah (SWT) confirms the fact that what people have been promised (i.e. the truth that Allah has promised them) and their sustenance are all decided in the heavens and descend upon them, in the ayah which can be translated as,* “And in the heaven is your provision, and that which you are promised”*. (TMQ, Adh-Dhariyat, 51: 22)

 

(9) Allah (SWT) refers to the expansion of the universe, in the ayah which can be translated as, *“With power did We construct the heaven. Verily, We are Able to expand the vastness of space thereof”*. (TMQ, Adh-Dhariyat, 51: 47)

 

(10) Allah (SWT) refers to the paving and leveling of the earth’s surface, in the ayah which can be translated as,* “And We have spread out the earth: how excellent a Spreader are We! (And how excellent was it prepared for life!)”*. (TMQ, Adh-Dhariyat, 51: 48)

 

(11) Allah (SWT) emphasizes that all creations are in pairs [that complement each other], in the ayah which can be translated as, *“And of everything We have created pairs, that you may remember (and hopefully ponder)”*. (TMQ, Adh-Dhariyat, 51: 49)

 

 

 

Each of the above ayahs needs to be dealt with individually to be understood clearly and well. Since this is not possible in the scope of this article, I am therefore forced to focus the discussion on the last point of the above signs of creation; namely Allah’s (SWT) emphasis that all creations are in pairs [that complement each other], in the ayah which can be translated as,* “And of everything We have created pairs, that you may remember (and hopefully ponder)”* (TMQ, Adh-Dhariyat, 51: 49. Before starting, there is a need to examine the interpretations of this ayah by scholars of Qur’anic exegesis, classical and contemporary.

 

 

 

The interpretation of the following ayah by scholars:

 

 

 

*“And of everything We have created pairs, that you may remember (and hopefully ponder)” *(TMQ, Adh-Dhariyat, 51:49)

 

 

 

Ibn Kathir (may Allah have mercy on him) explained this ayah as follows: It means that all creatures are in pairs: heaven and earth, night and day, sun and moon, shore and sea, light and

 

darkness, belief and disbelief, life and death, happiness and misery, paradise and hellfire, even animals and plants, and that is why Allah says what can be translated as, *“… that you may remember (and hopefully ponder)”* i.e. for you to know that the Creator is One with no partner.

 

 

 

The book, Tafseer Al-Jalalain (may Allah have mercy on its authors), explains that,* “And of everything”* relates to the creation; *“We have created pairs”* two kinds like male and female, heaven and earth, sun and moon, valley and mountain, summer and winter, sweet and sour, light and darkness; *“that you may remember (and hopefully ponder)”* that you may know that the Creator of the pairs is One, so worship Him alone.

 

 

 

In the book, Safwat al-Bayan (may Allah have mercy on its author), *“parity”* means two opposite kinds such as day and night, heaven and earth, guidance and straying away from the right path and from truth, etc.

 

 

 

The authors of Al-Muntakhab in the interpretation of the Holy Qur’an (may Allah reward its authors generously) explained the ayah as follows [as appears in the original Arabic-English Egyptian translated version of the book]: And of everything, spiritual, animate and inanimate, did We create pairs, complementing each other: night and day, positive and negative, love and aversion, rest and fatigue, mercy and punishment, sea and land, light and darkness, belief and disbelief, life and death, happiness and misery, heaven and hell, male and female, and so on. And when we come to the universe as a whole, there is He who complements it and sustains it, whereas He is One and He does not need anything to complement Him, that you people may hopefully ponder.

 

 

 

Scientific implications of this noble ayah:

 

 

 

The ayah which can be translated as, *“And of everything We have created pairs, that you may remember (and hopefully ponder)”* (TMQ, Adh-Dhariyat, 51: 49) is an assertion of the rule of parity in the creation of all beings, whether animate or inanimate. In other words, Allah (SWT) has created everything in true pairs and this parity is manifested across the board in all created beings and things and at all levels: from elements composing matter to human beings and beyond to the units composing the universe. It is a characteristic signifying uniformity, harmony and congruity in creationþ and is an attestation to the absolute Oneness of the Creator (SWT), Oneness that affirms that the Creator (SWT) is above all His creations. He is, as He describes His sublime Self to be, in what can be translated as, *“There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.”* (TMQ, Ash-Shura, 42: 11)

 

 

 

He also describes this sublime Self in the following ayah, that He ordered the seal of His prophets (PBUH) and consequently every believer to repeat as often as possible: *“Say (O Muhammad PBUH): "He is Allah, (the) One, the Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need (while He is in need of no one). He begets not, nor was He begotten. And there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him."* (TMQ, Al-Ikhlas, 112: 1-4)

 

 

 

This parity in creation, which attests to the Oneness of the Creator, demonstrates itself in the following stages:

 

 

 

1. Parity In all living organisms: humans, animals and plants;

2. Parity In reproductive cells (gametes): (ovum) and sperm;

3. Parity In the male sperm that contains either a male or female sex chromosome;

4. Parity In chromosomes that are present inside the nucleus of a living cell;

5. Parity In genes that carry heredity information and which are located on every chromosome from these ones.

6. Parity In nucleic acid structure;

7. How the four nitrogenous bases that build the (" steps") of the DNA connect together in a parity.

8. Parity In how the deoxyribose molecule (organic) is linked with the phosphate molecule (non-organic) to form the ( “sides”) of a DNA molecule;

9. Parity in the building of amino acids in both its forms: right-handed isomers and left-handed isomers;

10. Parity In proteins and anti –proteins.

11. Parity In the molecule by its two parts positive (cat ions) and negative (anions);

12. Parity In the atom and its nucleus which has a positive charge and its electrons which have a negative charge;

13. Parity In particles and antiparticles – it means in existence and non- existence0

14.

15. Parity In the primary units of the matter and its opposing elements;-it means in existence and non- existence.

16. Parity In matter and antimatter it means in existence and non- existence.

17. Parity In positive and negative energy charges;

18. Parity In matter and energy, which are two sides of the same coin and two forms of the same essence that signifies the Oneness of the Great Creator.

 

 

 

Anyone who contemplates the universe can go on and on infinitely proving the truth about parity that exists in every aspect of the universe, whether big or small. Thus being an attestation to the absolute Oneness of Allah, the Creator, and only Him. No associate or partner shares this attribute (of Oneness) with Allah, nor does anyone contend with Him for it. It is an attribute of the One and Only, the Absolute, the Self-Sufficient Master, Whom all creatures need, while He is in need of no one, He begets not, nor was He begotten and there is none co-equal or comparable unto Him.

 

 

 

To fully explain the above pattern of parity, each point would need to be dealt with in a separate article. Therefore, I will only choose a few examples of them in the following analysis:

 

 

 

I. Parity in living organisms:

 

 

 

Humans and animals reproduce by mating of a male and a female, which is known as sexual reproduction. In most cases, the male and female exist separately from one another (i.e. in separate individuals). However, in some simple animals, the male and female reproductive cells are found in the same individual, which give the male type of cell to another individual.

 

In sexual reproduction, fertilization can occur either inside the body or outside it. In simpler animal organisms reproduction occurs through binary division, budding, fragmentation, and creation of colonies or through virgin reproduction (without fertilization). This is all known as asexual reproduction. A single animal can sometimes alternate between sexual and asexual reproduction during its life cycle.

 

 

 

Through our knowledge of parity in elements and particles we can maintain with high certainty that some form of pair pattern takes place in asexual reproduction.

 

 

 

In plants, parity clearly appears in plants that produce flowers, which constitute more than a quarter of a million species. The flowers of these plants, which are produced through the blossoming of their buds, carry the reproductive organs made of male & female cells. These organs could be present in one flower, in two different flowers in the same plant or there could be male and female kinds of the same plant.

 

 

 

Fertilization in flowering plants leads to the production of seeds. Every seed contain the zygote of the new plant and an amount of stored food reserve for it given by the greatest creator (SWT). The seeds are usually contained in the fruit or are the fruit itself.

 

 

 

Non-flowering plants, however, reproduce by both sexually and asexually pattern through two phases of one life-cycle known as the alteration of generations. In its first phase, the plant produces both male and female gametes. The male gamete separates and is transferred through watery media to reach a female gamete to pollinate and fertilize it by uniting with it. In the second phase, the plant produces reproductive cells called haploid gametes which dispersed from the plant that is carrying after maturity, and grow in a suitable environment into a new plant.

 

 

 

II. Parity in male & female reproductive cells (sperms and ova):

 

 

 

Allah, the Creator (SWT) endowed the body of a sexually mature male the ability to produce male gametes known as sperms. Likewise, He endowed the body of a sexually mature female the ability to produce female gametes known as (ovum). When a pair of these gametes unites, it produces a zygote (nutfa amshaj). By the will of Allah, when the zygote is implanted in the wall of the uterus it undergoes cell division and the new baby comes into formation.

 

 

 

III. Parity inside the male gamete (sperm) itself:

 

 

 

Every sperm contains one of two sex chromosomes, either an X sex chromosome that represents the female or a Y sex chromosome that represents the male. An ovum can contain only an X sex chromosome. If the sperm that fertilizes the ovum contains a Y sex chromosome then, by Allah’s Will, the baby will be a boy, having a pair (XY) of sex chromosomes. However, if the fertilizing sperm contains an X sex chromosome then, by Allah’s Will, the baby will be a girl, having a pair (XX) of sex chromosomes. Therefore, parity is clearly also present inside the male gamete itself, besides the fact that there are male and female gametes.

 

 

 

IV. Parity in the chromosomes themselves:

 

 

 

Chromosomes are found inside the living cell nucleus in the form of string-like structures that are intertwined and packed in a substance called chromatin. These create the granular or net-like appearance of the nucleus. Chromosomes are primarily composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which carries the genetic code of the cell, as well as being composed of proteins in roughly proportionate amounts. Each chromosome (whose number is one of the factors determining its type) is composed of two strings that are held together at a point called the centromere, which is a small point that has a determined location on every chromosome. Its location is sometimes close to the middle of the two strings and in most cases close to one of their two edges. This is one of the incredible representations of Parity in creation.

 

 

 

V. Parity in genes (which carry hereditary information):

 

 

 

Genes are distributed along each chromosomal strand in the form of individual segments of DNA. They are found in clear pairs, because one allele (one member of a pair of genes) comes to the embryo from the father and the other allele comes form the mother.

 

 

 

VI, VII, VIII. Parity in the structure of DNA and in the structure of its steps and sides:

 

 

 

Each DNA molecule is structured in the form that is known as the double helix, which can be structurally described as a twisted ladder. The “sides” of this ladder which are composed of deoxyribose sugar and phosphate groups demonstrate parity (in how the sugars and phosphate groups are alternately linked). Furthermore, the “steps” of the ladder, which are each composed of two out of four nitrogenous bases, demonstrate parity in how they pair with each other. The four nitrogenous bases that make up the steps are: adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G) and cytosine ©.The first two bases always pair with one another and the latter two always pair with one another. Each of the bases lines up perfectly with its pair but not with any other base. Each pair of nitrogenous bases is attached to a pair made up of a sugar and a phosphate group composing deoxyribonucleotides, which are the units making up DNA. This proves how everything from the smallest to the largest unit is created in pairs.

 

 

 

IX, X. Parity in the structures of amino acids and proteins:

 

 

 

Amino acids are the building blocks of the various protein molecules, which make up the bodies of living organisms. Amino acids in most cases dissolve in water. In its crystallized form, an amino acid is very optically active due to its molecule being composed of a central carbon atom © bonded to four different groups: amino group (NH2), carboxyl group (COOH), one of 20 different ® groups, and a hydrogen atom (H). Therefore, the amino acid molecule is asymmetrical and these four groups rotate around the carbon atom. This means that the amino group can be found at different positions with regards to the carboxyl group. Due to the resulting asymmetry of the amino acid molecule, amino acids exist in either of two forms: either ones that rotate plane polarized light to the right (known as a right-handed isomer), or those that rotate plane polarized light to the left (known as a left-handed isomer). [isomers are compounds having the same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms in the molecule].

 

 

 

It has been proven that amino acids in the bodies of all living organisms (plants, animals and humans) are all left-handed isomers.

 

 

 

When the organism dies, the amino acids in its remnants start to re-arrange the atoms inside their molecules from being left-handed to being right handed, in fixed rates, until both left and right-handed molecules are present in equal amounts. Such a mixture of a pair of optical isomers with the same number of molecules is known as a racemic mixture. A racemic mixture cannot rotate plane polarized light [as both right and left-handed rotations cancel each other out], however it represents parity in its narrowest form.

 

 

 

The proportion of right-handed to left-handed forms in one amino acid in the remnants of a plant, animal or human can be used to determine the exact moment of death, with very high accuracy.

 

 

 

There are 20 known types of protein building amino acids, each of which is in a clear pair. Through bonding of the 20 types of amino acids, more than a million types of proteins can be built. Allah (SWT) has given the living cell the ability to produce 200,000 types of proteins. Similarly to the above mentioned structures, each protein molecule can exist in a right-handed or left-handed form. In the bodies of all living organisms the proteins have a left-handed form.

 

 

 

Similarly, nucleotides found on chromosomes, which are the smallest units that compose deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), have right-handed and left-handed forms. In the bodies of living organisms they are found in their left-handed form.

 

 

 

Increasing in structure size, each protein has its antiprotein and each body has its antibody. In addition, there are constructive proteins and destructive proteins.

 

 

 

XI – XVII. Parity in matter and its compounds:

 

 

 

Parity is clearly evident in compounds which are composed of positive ions (cations) and negative ions (anions). Pairs can also be detected in the structure of an atom, where its nucleus has a positive charge and its electrons that revolve around the nucleus have an equivalent negative charge.

 

It has been proven that matter is composed of about 30 types of primarily chemical elements, each of which has its corresponding antimatter element. Similarly, particles of matter have their corresponding antiparticles. Matter as a whole has its corresponding antimatter. If a thing meets with its opposite (for example: every time a particle collides with an antiparticle) they annihilate each other, because they lose their material nature and are converted into energy, which declares the annihilation of matter. This brings closer the understanding of existence and non-existence; and the power to make something exist from a state of non-existence (i.e. to create without a previous model) or the power to annihilate to non-existence. Nothing has these powers except Allah (SWT), the Creator. In the same way, each form of energy has its opposite: electricity has positive and negative charges and magnetism has periods of normal magnetism and periods of reversed magnetism. Even light has clear parity, as it sometimes moves in the form of waves and other times in the form of particles.

 

 

 

It has also been proven that matter and energy are two sides of the same coin and two forms of the same essence that indicates the Oneness of the Creator (SWT). The creation of elements in the form of pairs, their conversion into energy that also takes the form of pairs and the ability to convert energy back to its material state, confirms the truth that creation was initiated from a state of non-existence and confirms the possibility of annihilating it back to a state of non-existence.

 

 

 

We can detect parity in all forms of creation, beginning from its smallest to its largest units. This is in such a way that the Creator (SWT) continues to possess, Him and Him alone, the attribute of Oneness rising above all of His creation. Furthermore, the standardized building pattern in creation signifies the Oneness of the Creator (SWT).

 

 

 

In other words, each particle of an atom has its antiparticle and all of particles and antiparticles compose matter and antimatter; and antiparticles possess opposite properties to their corresponding particles, including opposite electrical charges, magnetism and rotational direction. Accordingly, whenever any or all of these opposites are found in one place, they annihilate each other.

 

 

 

Glory be to Allah Who created creation in clear pairs that bear witness to His complete Divinity and Oneness, raised above all of his creation. Glory be to Allah Who created matter and antimatter and energy and anti- energy. Glory be to Him Who created all of these opposites at the same time and in the same amount, to prove to us the reality of creation from a state of non-existence, and the possibility of annihilation to a state of non-existence!

 

 

 

Glory be to Allah Who separated matter and antimatter to allow for the existence of this vast, intricately built universe, the movement of which is masterfully perfected; anything that pertains to it is perfectly regulated and it is built according to one pattern that attests to the Creator’s (SWT) Oneness.

 

 

 

Glory be to Allah, who kept antimatter hidden somewhere in his realm until, if He wishes to annihilate the universe, He brings together matter and antimatter with His order “Be!” and it will be; and if He wishes, He resurrects everything by separating matter and antimatter again, through an order “Be!” and it will be.

 

 

 

Glory be to Allah, Who affirmed this sign of creation and said what can be translated as, *“And of everything We have created pairs, that you may remember (and hopefully ponder)”*. (TMQ, Adh-Dhariyat, 51: 49)

 

 

 

This scientific truth has only been discovered by man in the last decades of the twentieth century. Its appearance in Allah’s Book (the Qur’an) that was revealed to the seal of His prophets (PBUH) 1400 years ago, proves, without a shadow of a doubt, that the noble Qur’an contains the words of Allah, the Creator (SWT), and affirms the prophethood of Mohamed Ibn Abd-Allah, blessings and peace from Allah be upon him, his family, his companions and all those who follow his guidance and invoke by his invocations until the Day of Judgment.

 

 

 

All praise and thanks be to Allah, Cherisher and Sustainer of the ‘Âlamîn (mankind, jinn and all that exists).

]]>
27754Fri, 24 Mar 2006 19:44:05 +0000
Vegetation On Which You Send Cattle To Pasturehttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/27753-vegetation-on-which-you-send-cattle-to-pasture/He it is Who sends down water (rain) from the sky; from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture."

 

(TMQ, An-Nahl - The Bees:10) [1]

 

 

 

This noble verse comes at the opening of Surat An-Nahl (the Bees); a Surah that was revealed in Makkah. It consists of 128 verses. The surah was given this name because it included the mention of bees. It is said that the origin of the name “Nahl” – the Arabic word for “bee” comes from the fact that Allah, Exalted be He, has endowed (nahala) these insects with the ability to produce honey; an endowment that distinguishes bees from all other insects. There are more than 750,000 different kinds of insects; each kind, in turn, contains billions.

 

 

 

Surat An-Nahl opens with a warning of the sudden start of the Day of Judgment, and the awful crime of polytheism. Allah says what can be translated as, *"The Event (the Hour or the punishment of disbelievers and polytheists or the Islamic laws or commandments) ordained by Allah will come to pass, so seek not to hasten it."*(TMQ, An-Nahl: 1). In this noble verse, there is an obvious challenge to those who call for the Day to come soon, claiming that it is only a lie that will never take place. Whoever denies this Day is an unbeliever because it is a well-established fact. The verse then glorifies Allah, the Exalted, confirming that He has no partner, likeness, rival, wife or son since all these are characteristics only attributed to creatures, and Allah (SWT) is far above any of His creatures' characteristics.

 

 

 

The verses continue emphasizing the truth of the Inspiration revealed by Allah to His chosen prophets and messengers. Allah chose such pious servants for carrying the responsibility of informing the people about the fact that there is only One God Whom they must fear, and warning them against the danger of disobedience.

 

 

 

Allah Almighty included in Surat An-Nahl many miracles of the universe that demonstrate His unique and creative power, as well as His Divinity, Oneness, Comprehensive Knowledge, and Great Wisdom.

 

 

 

The surah then moves to some scenes of the Day of Judgment. It also refutes the disbelievers' claim that they are destined to disbelief, and emphasizes the fact that every messenger’s mission was simply to inform people clearly of Allah’s message. Allah sent a messenger to every nation to call his people to worship none but Allah; to reject the worship of idols. Some nations believed in this message and others went astray. The verses call upon wise people to travel through the earth and consider what has befallen the disbelievers of previous nations.

 

 

 

The surah then addresses Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) about those who disbelieve in the Resurrection. It assures the believers who are forced to emigrate from their homes in order to escape the injustice that would befall them by tyrants that they will be compensated in this worldly life and will be given a double reward in the Hereafter in return for their perseverance for the sake of defending their religion and adhering to their belief.

 

 

 

The Surah then reminds the seal of prophets, Muhammad (peace be upon him), that the messengers and prophets who were sent to previous nations were ordinary human beings--not angels, gods, nor sons of gods as claimed by those who went astray. Like Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), those prophets and messengers were chosen by Allah to receive the Inspiration and inform their people.

 

The verses then warn the sinners that Allah may cause the earth to swallow them up, or He may inflict them with torture from anywhere, while they are traveling, in order to urge them to think deeply about asking the mercy and benevolence of Allah. The Surah then establishes the fact that everything in the heavens and on the earth--humans, angels, and animals--prostrate down humbly before Allah. *"They fear their Lord above them, and they do what they are commanded."* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 50)

 

 

 

The Surah then again warns against polytheism and emphasizes the Oneness of Allah over all His creatures. It stresses the fact that all creatures must fear and respect their Creator Who owns whatever exists in the heavens and the earth, Who is the source of the eternal religion, Who is the origin of all blessings for His creatures, and Who relieves their afflictions whenever they seek His help; though some people pray to Allah only in times of distress and return to polytheism as soon as the affliction is removed. The verses warn such people and threaten them against severe punishment.

 

The Surah blames polytheists for making erroneous judgments without having the right or knowledge to make them. It emphasizes that whoever fabricates and lies will be harshly rebuked and asked about all his deeds on the Day of Judgment. The Surah then blames them, too, for assigning daughters to Allah--Glorified and Exalted is He above all that they associate with Him—when, on the other hand, they assign for themselves what they prefer and desire without having the right to do so.

 

 

 

Surat An-Nahl then reproves polytheists for their unjustified hatred for baby girls to the extent of burying them alive. It emphasizes what can be translated as, *"For those who believe not in the Hereafter is an evil description, and for Allah is the highest disription. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise." *(TMQ, An-Nahl: 60). The Surah mentions the fact that if Allah punished humans for all their sins in this world, there would not have been a single creature living on earth. However, He postpones such judgment to a set date. When that date comes, no one can stop it or delay it. A sign of the polytheists' transgression is that they assign unto Allah what they hate; moreover, they falsely imagine that they will be rewarded in the afterlife. However, the surah confirms that such unbelievers will be punished in Hell soon.

 

 

 

At this point, the speech is directed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Allah tells him what can be translated as,* “By Allah, We indeed sent (Messengers) to the nations before you (O Muhammad), but Shaitân (Satan) made their deeds fair-seeming to them. So he (Satan) is their Wali (helper) today (i.e. in this world), and theirs will be a painful torment. And We have not sent down the Book (the Qur’an) to you (O Muhammad), except that you may explain clearly to them those things in which they differ, and (as) a guidance and a mercy for a folk who believe."* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 63, 64).

 

 

 

The surah then blames those who worship idols beside Allah. Such idols do not and cannot possess any provision for themselves from the heavens or the earth. The surah warns them against putting forward any similitude for Allah (as there is nothing similar to Him, nor does He resemble anything). Only Allah knows how corrupt those who gave such examples are, and they are deluded. The verses contrast the happiness and success of believers against the corruption of polytheists and polytheism. It emphasizes that only Allah knows the future in the heavens and the earth. One matter of the future that only Allah knows is the date of the Day of Judgment which will come suddenly. Truly, Allah is All-knowing, All-Mighty. Allah again addresses His messenger, Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), saying what can be translated as, *"Then, if they turn away, your duty (O Muhammad) is only to convey (the Message) in a clear way." (TMQ, An-Nahl: 82)

 

 

 

The Surah then emphasizes the fact that unbelievers recognize the blessings of Allah but they deny them. It then describes their state in the Day of Judgment. All messengers will witness for their people on that Day. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) will also bear witness for his people and for all those who disbelieved in his message and denied his prophethood during his lifetime up until the Day of Judgment. Thus, Allah says what can be translated as, *"And (remember) the Day when We shall raise up from every nation a witness against them from amongst themselves. And We shall bring you (O Muhammad) as a witness against these. And We have sent down to you the Book (the Qur’an) as an exposition of everything, a guidance, a mercy, and glad tidings for those who have submitted themselves (to Allah as Muslims)."* (Surat An-Nahl: 89). Allah says, *"And had Allah willed He could have made you (all) one nation, but He sends astray whom He wills and guides whom He wills. But you shall certainly be called to account for what you used to do."* (Surat An-Nahl: 93). Allah also says,*" Whoever works righteousness - whether male or female - while he (or she) is a true believer (of Islamic Monotheism) verily, to him We will give a good life (in this world with respect, contentment and lawful provision), and We shall pay them certainly a reward in proportion to the best of what they used to do (i.e. Paradise in the Hereafter)."* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 97)

 

 

 

The Surah then orders Muslims to seek refugee in Allah (from Satan) before reciting Holy Qur'an. Allah addresses His messenger Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) saying what can be translated as, *"Say (O Muhammad) Ruh-ul-Qudus [Jibrîl (Gabriel)] has brought it (the Qur'an) down from your Lord with truth, that it may make firm and strengthen (the Faith of) those who believe, and as a guidance and glad tidings to those who have submitted (to Allah as Muslims)."* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 102)

 

 

 

The Surah rejects the false claim by some unbelievers that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was taught by another human. Allah says that the tongue of the man they refer to is foreign, while this (the Qur'an) is in a clear Arabic tongue. The Surah totally denounces those who disbelieve in Allah's verses, belying Him or denying His existence, except if one is forced to do so and his heart is assured with Faith. But those who open their breasts to disbelief, on them are wrath from Allah; they will be severely punished in the Hereafter.

 

 

 

On the other hand, Allah says what can be translated as, *"Then, verily, Your Lord--for those who emigrated after they had been put to trials and thereafter strove hard and fought (for the Cause of Allah) and were patient--verily, your Lord afterward is, Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful"* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 110).

 

 

 

One verse gives an example of the town of Makkah, in what can be translated as, *"And Allah puts forward the example of a township (Makkah) that dwelt secure and well-content: its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it (its people) denied the Favors of Allah (with ungratefulness). So Allah made it taste extreme of hunger (famine) and fear, because of that (evil, i.e. denying Prophet Muhammad) which they (its people) used to do.*" (TMQ, An-Nahl: 112).

 

 

 

At the end of the Surah, the verses mention some prohibited foods, emphasizing that the right of prohibition and permission is confined only to Almighty Allah. Such rights cannot be claimed by any imposter. Those imposters will eventually be losers in the Hereafter because they will have a temporary illusion of happiness in this life but will be punished in the afterlife. An example of those liars is Jews who disobeyed Allah’s orders. Allah forbade them from certain kinds of food as a result of their boundless, wickedness and exceeding the limits of Almighty Allah.

 

 

 

Still, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful for those who repent and do good deeds. *"Invite (mankind, O Muhammad) to the way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Revelation and the Qur'an) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided.”* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 125).

 

 

 

The Surah describes Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim) as a leader (or a nation) who had all the good righteous qualities: he was obedient to Allah, worshipped none but Allah, and he was not one of those who were Al-Mushrikûn (polytheists, idolaters, disbelievers in the Oneness of Allah, and those who joined partners with Allah). He was thankful for Allah's Favors. Thus Allah chose him and guided him to a Straight Path (Islamic Monotheism - neither Judaism nor Christianity). Moreover, He ordered Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) to follow Abraham's religion.

 

 

 

The Surah tells us that Allah ordered the Jews to keep Saturdays sacred as a day of rest and worship, but some of them did not obey His orders, those will be charged by Him on the Day of Judgment.

 

 

 

Surah An-Nahl is concluded with an order by Allah to every Muslim through addressing Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) saying what can be translated as, *"Invite (mankind, O Muhammad) to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom (i.e. with the Divine Revelation and the Qur'an) and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is better. Truly, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided. And if you punish (your enemy, O you believers in the Oneness of Allah), then punish them with the like of that with which you were afflicted. But if you endure patiently, verily, it is better for As-Sâbirûn (the patient). And endure you patiently (O Muhammad), your patience is not but from Allah. And grieve not over them (polytheists and pagans), and be not distressed because of what they plot. Truly, Allah is with those who fear Him (keep their duty unto Him), and those who are Muhsinûn (good-doers)"* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 125-128).

 

 

Tenets of Faith in Surat An-Nahl

 

1) Belief in Allah, the One who created all and everything, the God and owner of everything, who has no rivals in His kingdom and no partner in His Sovereignty, and He is not like any of His creatures. Belief in the ultimate power, mercifulness, compassion of Allah; and that He does not tolerate the arrogant, and that He knows whatever we reveal or hide.

 

2) Belief in the truth of inspiration revealed by Almighty Allah to His messengers, whom He carefully chose from all His creatures, sent them to various nations, in various times and eras, and finally concluded His inspiration through Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him, and upon his family, his followers and upon whoever follow his steps and take after him till the Day of Judgment).

 

The original versions of previous scriptures were exposed to a great deal of distortion, which lead the Christians and Jews to fall into polytheism, believing in paganism and false beliefs, Allah has undertaken the responsibility to fully protect His final message--every word and every letter--until the Day of Judgment with the same language with which it was revealed (the Arabic language).

 

3) Belief in the mission of every messenger of Allah, which is to carry the message of Allah to the people without affecting their free will to choose and thereby deserve their reward or punishment in the afterlife.

 

4) Belief in the truth and absoluteness of resurrection.

 

5) Belief in the truth of reward and punishment.

 

6) Belief that only Allah has the right to judge, and accordingly He decides what is prohibited and what is not.

 

7) Belief that Allah conferred on people minds to reason and reflect, free will to choose and direct, and made clear to them the right path that leads to happiness and blessing and the wrong path of evil, He then leaves the choice open for every person.

 

8) Belief that whatever exists in the world bows down to Almighty Allah, and that all idols alleged and worshipped by disbelievers such as rocks, trees, stars, planets and others are all creatures that cannot create anything, all of which worship Almighty Allah humbly.

 

9) Belief that Allah owns whatever is in the heavens and the earth, and that He alone has the right religion.

 

 

Noble traits encouraged in Surat An-Nahl

 

1) Calling for the establishment of justice on earth, treating people kindly, keeping promises, and other forms of good manners and refined qualities and rules of conduct based on fear of Allah.

 

2) Calling for spending money for the sake of Allah, especially on poor relatives.

 

3) Calling for Hijrah (traveling from an area of sins to an area of good morals) for the sake of Allah.

 

4) Warning from falling into fitnah (worldly temptations) and from the most dangerous disbelief after having believed in Allah.

 

5) Completely forbidding polytheism or the worship of anything other than Allah and any abomination or transgression.

 

6) Reminding of the various blessings of Allah on His worshippers; such as seeking refuge with Allah at every disaster and distress and that He will always give them relief.

 

7) Reminding mankind of the stages of his life starting from the fetus stage through the youth and adolescence, adulthood through old age or senility until death. The surah also compares those stages to the moving from times of wealth and wellbeing into distress and torment, or vice versa.

 

 

Signs of Creation in Surat An-Nahl

 

1) Creation of Heavens and earth with precision, and a confirmation that Allah is the Creator of all and everything.

 

2) Creation of mankind from semen, however man always responds to blessings and favors with denial and ingratitude.

 

3) Creation of animals (cows, camels, sheep and goats), with many benefits for mankind.

 

4) Creation of horses, mules, donkeys, and other means of transportation that were not known at the time of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). Allah can create what mankind does not know.

 

5) Rain falling from the sky for drinking, irrigating plants and trees, most importantly, olives, palm trees, grapes and all other fruits. Allah has made this a sign for those who believe in Him.

 

6) Preparing the earth for habitation by creating it in a spherical shape condensing it and rotating it around its axis and causing it to revolve around the sun (so that there is day and night). Allah also prepared the sun, the moon and other planets with His power for the sake of regulating life in the universe.

 

7) Spreading various types and kinds of living organisms and inanimate matter in earth.

 

8) Preparing the seas for the use of mankind, including the marine life with their tender flesh and their skeletons that are used in making jewels. Seas also have the ability to carry ships of various sizes which serve man's welfare while traveling across the waves and wind above the sea.

 

9) Fixing earth with huge mountains, acting as pegs, so as not to move or shake, if not for those mountains, earth would not have been fit for inhabitation. Formation of mountains is related to the rivers that source from their peaks. River water moves from its source to its mouth while breaking up rocks to produce fertilizing silt and clay, and deposit many valuable minerals, gems and other ore deposits and resources. It also helps to pave earth's surface and producing travel routes and mountain canyons.

 

10) Making different topographic details of earth’s surface as means of guiding people through the earth by day, and making stars a means of guiding them by night and at sea.

 

11) Describing the punishment of some previous nations which is similar in many ways to earthquakes that strike suddenly without leaving the chance for anyone to understand their mechanism. Allah emphasizes that He made earth collapse with those who disobeyed Him in the past, and that He CAN do this in the present and in the future. This includes an affirmation that, even if man could understand the mechanism and scientific reasons of various natural disasters, this does not eliminate them from being in the assortment of Allah's servants which He employs to punish the disbelievers and sinners, to test the pious and as a lesson and example for the rest.

 

12) Mentioning of the earth’s revolving around its axis while orbiting around the sun through the example of elongating and shrinking the shadow. Allah considers this as a sign of prostration in complete humble obedience.

 

13) Emphasizing Allah’s matchlessness in creating animals, in the formation of milk in their udders from between feces and blood to be drawn clear and pure and ready to be drunk.

 

14) Making palms and grape vines a legal source of earning one's living, though some people exploit them badly in the making of wine.

 

15) Creating bees, giving the female bees the ability to build their homes in mountains, in the trees and in hives set up for them by humans. He also gave them the ability to collect pollen and nectar from various flowers across wide distances without losing their way back home, the ability to produce that unique drink with varying colors from their bellies, wherein is healing for men.

 

16) Creating mates of the same kind and having, from these wives, offspring; this is applicable to every living creature in the biosphere. Among those are humans that could die as children, youth or old men, or could live to be a very old man suffering partial or total loss of memory (senility/dementia).

 

17) Babies are born knowing nothing; it is Allah who gives them the senses of hearing and sight. In the Holy Qur'an the power of hearing is always mentioned before the power of sight, and science recently discovered that fetus develops hearing long before his sight.

 

18) Mentioning that Allah is the One who holds birds in flight in the sky and is the One who gives them the ability to fly.

 

19) Mentioning both heat and cold with the same word “Harr” because both cases are described by either positive or negative degrees of temperature.

 

20) Prohibiting eating carrion, blood, pig flesh or animals which are slaughtered as a sacrifice for deities other than Allah with exceptions, in what can be translated as, *"But if one is forced by necessity, without willful disobedience, and not transgressing, - then, Allâh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful."* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 115).

 

 

 

Each item mentioned above needs a special approach but I will confine myself to discuss only the fifth point (concerning verse 10 of this surah). Before starting, we should first have a quick glance at the views of some Qur’anic commentators about the significance of the tenth verse in Surat An-Nahl.

 

 

The interpretation of the verse by scholars

 

Explaining verse 10, Surat An-Nahl: *"He it is Who sends down water (rain) from the sky; from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture."*

 

 

Ibn Kathir

 

A summary of Ibn Kathir's opinion: after Allah mentioned His great blessings on His creatures such as animals, He mentions the great blessing of rain from the sky which contains benefits for both humans and animals. Allah says: "from it you drink", as He has made it fresh and ready to be drunk rather than salty. "And from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture," means that Allah has sent the rainwater that caused trees and grasslands to grow in which humans herd, guard, and tend their animals.

 

 

Ibn Abbass

 

Ibn Abbass also said: the meaning of the word “pasture” is to guard and keep your animals.

 

 

 

* The remaining explanations of the verse contain similar views that I don't see important to repeat.

Scientific evidences in this verse

 

First: in the verse that can be translated as, *"He it is Who sends down water (rain) from the sky; from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture."*

 

Opening the Holy verse with the pronoun "He" that refers to "Allah" emphasizes that it is He who sends down water from the sky, and that no creature has any power in this vital process, without which life on earth would have been impossible.

 

 

 

It has been proven that the earth is the richest planet in water in the solar system. Earth is covered by a water zone (hydrosphere) measured to be about 1.4 billion cubic kilometers divided as follows:

 

1375,000,000 km3 in seas and oceans (97.5% of the water on earth),

 

28,000,000 km3 snow over the two poles of earth, and peaks of high mountains (2% of the total water in earth),

 

6.720.000 km3 held underground (0.48 of total water on earth),

 

280,000 km3 internal lakes and water streams (0.02% of total water on earth),

 

140,000 km3 soil moisture (0.01% of total water on earth),

 

14,000 km3 air moisture (0.001% of total water on earth)

 

Water covers about 71% of total area of the earth’s surface measured as 510 million square kilometers, while snow covers about 9% of the earth’s surface.

 

 

 

It was also proven that all the earth's water originally came from underground through volcanic eruptions. Holy Qur'an mentioned this truth before in Surat An-Naze'at, in the verse that can be translated as, *"And after that He spread the earth, and brought forth from there its water and its pasture."* (TMQ, An-Naze'at: 30-31) As the water vapor, which consists from over 70% of gases and vapors coming out of volcanic craters began reaching the higher levels of the atmosphere. Allah prepared for it an area with low pressure which causes such vapor to extend, and consequently cool. In addition to this the temperature drops on the peaks of such range to -60ú C above the equator. When the temperature and pressure of the air carrying water vapor drops, its relative humidity increases due to the drop in its density. When its relative humidity reaches 100% its pressure will be equal to that of water vapor. This degree of temperature is called saturation or “dew point”. The low temperature of saturated air is only achieved in high altitudes, where it encounters waves of cold air or when it collides with the peeks of high mountain chains. This immediately results in the condensation of vapor in the form of microscopic water droplets. The size of such droplets is less than one tenth of a micron. In this way, clouds are formed and unite at levels from 2 to 8 kilometers above sea level, though they could be found sometimes, beyond these limits.

 

 

 

These droplets cannot fall in the form of rainwater unless they reach the size and mass that enables them to be pulled down by the earth gravity. This can only happen when the clouds carry dust particles or minerals, or by the formation of snow or ice crystals which help water vapor to condense more effectively inside the clouds. They also help water droplets to reach the size and mass that cannot be held up in the air and thus the raindrops fall. The size of such drops is about two tenths or half of a millimeter.

 

 

 

When water falls onto the earth, a perfectly designed cycle begins to take place around the earth. The water cycle occurs according to a number of rules and regularities, which depict the ultimate power and refined creation. The heat of the sun annually vaporizes about 380 cubic kilometers of water that reaches the lower part of the earth atmosphere. This water condenses again in the form of rainwater and falls on earth – of this total volume, 320 cubic kilometers are vaporized from sea and ocean surfaces, 60 thousand cubic kilometers come from the land. This water returns again to the earth in its new order. This time, 284 thousand cubic kilometers fall on seas and oceans (losing 36 thousand cubic kilometers of the water that had vaporized from them), 96 thousand cubic kilometers fall upon earth (with an excess of 36 thousand cubic kilometers over what originally vaporized from them). This additional water returns again to oceans and seas, and the level of water in these bodies of water remains constant.

 

 

 

The distribution of water on earth’s surface is a marvelous cycle that plays – and will always play – a very important role in preparing the earth for life. If not for these vast bodies of water, the temperature of earth's atmosphere would rise to over 100 degrees Celsius in the morning, and drop under 100 degrees Celsius at night.

 

 

 

The water cycle around the earth causes the formation of mountain canyons and passages, valleys and streams. As a result, the soil is formed and much ore deposits are concentrated. The water flows over the depressions of earth forming lakes, seas and oceans. A portion of such water freezes in the form of masses of ice around the two poles of earth and on the high mountaintops. Some of that water penetrates through porous and semi-porous rocks into the underground to form water reservoirs (aquifers) stored inside fractured and porous rocks of the earth's crust. Some of this water remains in the soil and in the earth's atmosphere in the form of moisture for the benefit of living creatures on earth. Thus it is clear that Allah and none but Him, orders rain to fall on earth and will always do so.

 

 

 

Second, about the verse that can be translated as, *"…from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture." *It is impossible to find completely pure water on earth. However, rainwater and snow are considered to be the purest forms of natural water. This form of water, as it reaches the surface of earth, begins to dissolve minerals of the earth's rocks that are water-soluble. In this way, rainwater and snow constantly refresh the earth's water. This process is the only source providing fresh water for humans on earth. For this reason Allah reminds us of His favor saying what can be translated as, *"…from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture."* Earth water is constantly purified of whatever pollutants exist in it, in the form of soluble substances or microbes. This water purifying process extends from about one kilometer under earth's surface to about 7 - 17 kilometers above sea level.

 

 

 

The concentration of salts in seawater is about 34,481 thousand parts per million, and it includes 40 types of electrically charged (ionized) elements of which the concentration exceeds one part per million. The concentration of the most common salts in seawater varies between 32 thousand parts per million to 42 thousand parts per million. The level of salt concentration can rise over that level in closed and semi-closed seas, especially in dry areas such as eastern parts of the Arab world. For example, the salt concentration level in the Dead Sea can reach about 285 thousand parts per million.

 

 

 

Water is considered fresh if the amount of salts are less than a thousand parts per million, while rain water salts do not exceed twenty parts per million. Water is a fundamental element in the formation of all living beings. All vital activities and their reactions must take place in the presence of water.

 

 

 

þThird: Allah says what can be translated as, *"He it is Who sends down water (rain) from the sky; from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture." *(TMQ, An-Nahl: 10)

 

 

 

Scientifically, water is known to have existed on earth before the existence of all living beings. Plants existed before animals and they both were created before human beings. The reason behind this is very obvious. Plants have played, and still play, the main role in supplying the atmosphere of the earth with oxygen. Plants are the divine factory where the organic elements necessary for the construction of the plants, animals and human beings are made. Therefore, it became man’s and animals’ chief food.

 

 

 

The greatness of the holy verse is made obvious when Allah says what can be translated as, *"He it is Who sends down water (rain) from the sky; from it you drink and from it (grows) the vegetation on which you send your cattle to pasture."* (TMQ, An-Nahl: 10).

 

 

 

Glory be to Allah who revealed the holy Qur’an to His seal of Prophets. He revealed it with His comprehensive knowledge and swore to preserve it in its original form and language of revelation (the Arabic language) word for word, letter for letter throughout the 14 centuries and until the Day of Judgment. Through such preservation the Qur’an continues to be the light which guides people, divine as it was revealed and a witness that it could never be a man-made book. The Qur’an is the word of Allah, and evidence for the Prophethood of the Messenger of Allah; peace and blessings be upon him and those who followed him to the Day of Judgment.

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27753Fri, 24 Mar 2006 19:42:27 +0000
Seed Which Sends Forth Its Shootshttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/27752-seed-which-sends-forth-its-shoots/3 Wonders of the Holy Qur’an

 

 

 

III. “… but their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a(sown) seed which sends forth its shoots, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands on its stem, …” (TMQ, Al-Fateh – The Conquest: 29)

 

 

 

This ayah is the last ayah of Surat Al-Fateh which was revealed in Madinah. It is called Al-Fateh as it begins with a reference to the great victory that Allah (SWT) made possible for the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in the signing of the Treaty of Hodaybia. Many of the Muslims present at the time felt that this treaty was a concession to the disbelievers in Makkah. Omar Ibnul-Khattab (RA) said to the Prophet (PBUH), “Aren’t you the Messenger of Allah?” He said: “Yes!” He said, “Aren’t we Muslims?” He said, “Yes!” He said, “Aren’t they infidels?” He said, "Yes!” Then Omar asked, “Then why is our religion humiliated?” The Prophet (PBUH) answered him, “I am Allah’s servant and His Messenger, I will not disobey His command, and He will not lead me astray.” When this Surat was revealed, starting with the words, “Verily, We have given you (O Muhammad) a manifest victory”, one of the companions of the Prophet (PBUH) asked, “O, Messenger of Allah, is it a victory?” The Prophet (PBUH) answered, “Yes! By the One in whose hand is the soul of Muhammad, it is a victory.”

 

 

 

The Treaty of Hodaybia provided the Muslims with an opportunity to meet many Arab tribes, to invite them to Islam and to explain the virtues of this faith which was to be the last divine religions calling people to belief in the Oneness of Allah (tawhid). The treaty also exposed the fanaticism of the efforts of the Quraysh in preventing the Prophet (PBUH) and the early Muslims from entering the shrine of the Ka’ba (Al-haram) for six years, from when the Prophet (PBUH) migrated to Madinah until the day of Hodaybia. They forbade them from entering Makkah out of prejudice which was in contradiction to the traditions of the time. They forbade them from visiting Makkah during the sacred months that the Arabs respected and glorified even during the pre-Islamic period (Al-jahiliyya). This event allowed the inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula to witness the tolerant nature of Islam, the nobility of the Muslims and the blind stubbornness of the disbelievers.

 

 

 

In 6 AH (after Hijra), the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) had a vision that he was entering the Ka’ba with a group of Muslims, some of whom had shaven heads and others had their hair cut short; they were not afraid. The visions of Prophets are true. In Dhul-Qa’dah of the same year, he set out for Makkah with the intention of performing the minor pilgrimage (Umrah) and without the intention of fighting the disbelievers. He was accompanied by 1400 immigrants from Makkah (Al-Muhajireen) and the residents of Madinah (Al-Ansar). He also encouraged the tribes around Madinah to go with him. When he arrived at a place known as Thaniyat Al-Mirar, the Prophet’s camel knelt down and would not move. The people said, “The camel won’t move (i.e. she is being stubborn)”. The Prophet (PBUH) said, “She has never been stubborn. This is not her nature; she has been held back by He who held back the elephants from Makkah. Today I shall accept whatever plan the Quraysh propose to me asking me to tighten my ties of kinship”. Bukhari reports that the Prophet (PBUH) said, “By the One in whose hands is my soul, I shall accept their offer of any plan that glorifies the sanctity of Allah.” The Prophet (PBUH) and his Companions then proceeded until they reached Al-Hodaybia. There, Quraysh refused to allow them to enter Makkah. The Prophet (PBUH) sent Othman Ibn-Affan (RA) to them with a message that he did not intend to fight and had only come to perform the Umrah. Quraysh held Othman captive after he gave them the Prophet’s message. The leaders of the Quraysh told him that he could make tawaf (circumambulate the Ka’ba) if he wished to but he said, “I will not do so until the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) does.”

 

A rumor spread that Othman Ibn-Affan (RA) had been killed. The Prophet (PBUH) said: “We will not leave without fighting the people.” He then called on them to make a pledge to him under a tree; this pledge became known as Bay’at Ar-Radwan (Pledge of consent). Later, they learned that the rumor about Othman’s murder was unfounded so the Muslims agreed to cease hostilities with the Makkans and set down the conditions of a settlement with them that became known as the Treaty of Hodaybia. The Prophet (PBUH) had to forego some of his rights to protect the Muslims but he knew that Allah would create a victory for the Muslims out of this settlement. The treaty allowed any Arab tribe to choose to enter a peaceful alliance either with the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) or with Quraysh. The Khuza’ah tribe chose to make an alliance with the Prophet (PBUH) and the Bakr tribe entered into one with Quraysh. The Muslims respected and abided by all of the conditions of the Treaty of Hodaybia but Quraysh broke the rules when they decided to help their ally, the Bakr tribe, against the Khuza’ah tribe, who were allied to the Prophet (PBUH). This action led to the decision of the Prophet (PBUH) to conquer Makkah.

 

 

 

Between 8 - 10 Ramadan in 8AH, a Muslim army of 10,000 fighters left Madinah for Makkah. In honor of the sanctity of Makkah, the Prophet (PBUH) ordered his army not to kill anyone unless they were forced to. The Prophet (PBUH) entered Makkah bearing a white flag, wearing a black turban, riding his camel “Al-Qaswaa” and reading Surat Al-Fateh. He lowered his head in humility to Allah (SWT) as Allah had allowed him to conquer Umm al-Qura (the mother of all cities), Makkah, the town in which he first received the revelation and the home of the Sacred House. The Muslims entered Makkah with him in peace and tranquility - fearlessly - just like the Prophet (PBUH) had seen in his dream.

 

 

 

The Muslims then removed all the idols from the Ka’ba and performed tawaf while the Messenger of Allah recited, “There is no God worthy of worship except Allah, alone, who has no partner. He had fulfilled His promise and granted victory to His servant, dignified His soldiers, and defeated the allies Himself”. He then recited the following ayah *[“O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allâh is that (believer) who has At-Taqwâ [i.e. he is one of the Muttaqûn (the pious)]. Verily, Allâh is All-Knowing, All-Aware” (TMQ, 49:13).

 

 

 

Surat Al-Fateh was revealed in 6 AH straight after the Treaty of Hodaybia while the Prophet of Allah (PBUH) was returning to Madinah with his companions. This Surah includes details of this settlement. It is reported that the Prophet (PBUH) said, “Yesterday, a Surah was revealed to me that is better than this life and everything in it: “Verily, We have given you (O Muhammad) a manifest victory.” (This has been related by Bukhari, Nasai’, and Tirmidhi.)

 

 

 

Surat Al-Fateh starts with an address to the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) reassuring him that the path Allah guided him to is the correct path and that the promise of Allah will become reality in a very short time. Concerning these issues, Allah (SWT) says at the beginning of the Surat *"Verily, We have given you (O Muhammad) a manifest victory. That Allâh may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, and complete His Favor on you, and guide you on the Straight Path. And that Allâh may help you with strong help."* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 1-3) The ayahs stress the fact that Allah (SWT) is He who put peace and tranquility into the hearts of the believers so that they may grow in faith, for faith increases and decreases. Allah (SWT) then gave glad tidings to the believers of His forgiveness and reward and His help in the form of His soldiers (He has soldiers in the heavens and the earth; no one knows the soldiers of your lord except Him). The ayahs mention Allah’s attributes of being the All-Knower, the All-Wise, the All- Powerful, the Mighty and the Forbearing. The ayahs then describe the rewards that await the believing men and women, and the punishment that Allah has prepared for the hypocrites (men and women) and the polytheists (men and women) who worship others with Allah.

 

 

 

The Surat addresses the Prophet (PBUH) once more in ayah, *"Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad) as a witness, as a bearer of glad tidings, and as a warner"* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 8), meaning that he is a witness for his Ummah (nation) and for all creation, a bearer of glad tidings for the believers and a warning for the disbelievers and the hypocrites. The ayahs then address the believers in what can be translated as, *“In order that you (O mankind) may believe in Allâh and His Messenger, and that you assist and honor him (PBUH), and (that you) glorify (Allâh’s) praises morning and afternoon. “* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 9)

 

 

 

The address then rapidly switches again to the Prophet (PBUH), praising the Bay’at Ar-Ridwan (pledge of consent), and gives glad tidings of Allah’s reward for those who fulfill it and warns those who breaks their pledge as it is a covenant with Allah (SWT). The ayah can be translated as, *“Verily, those who give Bai‘ah (pledge) to you (O Muhammad (PBUH)) they are giving Bai‘ah (pledge) to Allâh. The Hand of Allâh is over their hands. Then whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks it only to his own harm; and whosoever fulfils what he has covenanted with Allâh, He will bestow on him a great reward.” * (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 10).

 

 

 

The ayahs of Surat Al-Fateh turn to the Bedouin hypocrites who refused to accompany the Prophet (PBUH) and made up excuses and lies because they thought he would not be victorious. However, they asked him to ask forgiveness for them and they wanted to share in the spoils he brought back. Allah is well aware of their actions and he had prepared Hell fire for the disbelievers and the hypocrites. Allah says *“And to Allâh belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. He forgives whom He wills, and punishes whom He wills. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.”* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 14).

 

 

 

The ayahs of Surat Al-Fateh address those who stayed behind informing them that they would be called to jihad again and if they stay behind once more, they would be punished severely. The ayah can be translated as, *“Say (O Muhammad (PBUH)) to the Bedouins who lagged behind: "You shall be called to fight against a people given to great warfare, then you shall fight them, or they shall surrender. Then if you obey, Allah will give you a fair reward; but if you turn away as you did turn away before, He will punish you with a painful torment"* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 16).

 

 

 

The ayahs then discuss the case of the people who are excused from taking part in jihad, for example the blind, the lame and the sick, saying *“No blame or sin is there upon the blind, nor is there blame or sin upon the lame, nor is there blame or sin upon the sick (that they go not for fighting). And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad (PBUH)), He will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow (Paradise); and whosoever turns back, He will punish him with a painful torment.” * (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 17).

 

 

 

The ayahs then praised the believers who participated in the Bay’at of Ar-Radwan (pledge of consent), emphasizing that Allah (SWT) is pleased with them; He sent down calmness and tranquility on their hearts, He defended them and strengthened them. Allah has given them glad tidings of the rapid conquest of Makkah and of the abundant rewards they will obtain because He is the Ever All-Mighty and All-Wise; part of this reward is that He prevented the disbelievers from fighting them. He made this a sign for them and guided them to the straight path, for He is able to do all things.

 

 

 

The ayahs emphasize that if the disbelievers had fought the believers, they would not find any protectors. This is one of the laws that Allah decreed on previous nations; divine laws cannot be replaced or changed without Allah’s permission. The glad tidings Allah gives to the believers in Surat Al-Fateh became a reality when the Muslims entered Makkah without bloodshed, making Islam sovereign in the Arabian Peninsula and supreme over all other religions. This is an honor that Allah (SWT) bestowed on the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) and the Muslims. Allah is all-aware of the deeds of His servants; He knows what lie in their hearts and what their intentions are. Allah punished Quraysh who had refused to allow the believers to enter the Sacred Masjid two years earlier, on the day of Hodaybia. Allah says about this *“They are the ones who disbelieved (in the Oneness of Allah - Islamic Monotheism) and hindered you from Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (at Makkah) and detained the sacrificial animals from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill them and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that Allah might bring into His Mercy whom He wills - if they (the believers and the disbelievers) had been apart, We verily would have punished those of them who disbelieved with painful torment. When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness - the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, - then Allah sent down His Sakînah (calmness and tranquility) upon His Messenger (PBUH) and upon the believers, and made them stick to the word of piety (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but Allah); and they were well entitled to it and worthy of it. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.”* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 25, 26).

 

 

 

The ayahs discuss the pride and haughtiness of the jahiliyya that caused Quraysh not to allow the Prophet (PBUH) and the believers to enter Makkah to perform Umrah. The believers were very angry with this action, but Allah (SWT) sent down tranquility upon his Messenger (PBUH) and the believers and made them hold true to their belief. And Allah has made the dream of His Prophet (PBUH) become a reality. He says what can be translated as, “Indeed Allâh shall fulfill the true vision which He showed to His Messenger (PBUH) [i.e. the Prophet saw a dream that he has entered Makkah along with his Companions, having their (head) hair shaved and cut short] in very truth. Certainly, you shall enter Al-Masjid-al-Harâm, if Allâh wills, secure, (some) having your heads shaved, and (some) having your head hair cut short, having no fear. He knew what you knew not, and He granted besides that a near victory.” (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 27).

 

 

 

The Surah ends with confirmation of the Prophethood and the message given to Muhammad (PBUH), which disbelievers throughout history denied. Allah says *“He it is Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad (PBUH)) with guidance and the religion of truth (Islam), that He may make it (Islam) superior to all religions. And All-Sufficient is Allah as a Witness.”* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 28).

 

 

 

In addition to this, Allah confirms through His divine witness that it is He who revealed the description of the seal of His Prophets (PBUH), and the description of the believers with him in the previously revealed books such as Torah and Gospel saying *“Muhammad (PBUH) is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taurât (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers, that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allah has promised those among them who believe (i.e. all those who follow Islamic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise).”*(TMQ, Al-Fateh: 29).

 

 

Signs of creation in Surat Al-Fateh:

 

 

 

The main theme of Surat Al-Fateh is the Treaty of Hodaybia; the event is explained in detail with the lessons Muslims of all ages need to draw from it. In spite of this focus, this Surah includes a number of facts about life and the universe which can be listed as follows:

 

 

 

1) “And to Allâh belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth”. This point is mentioned twice in Surat Al-Fateh, in the fourth and seventh ayahs. Among the “hosts” of the heavens and the earth are angels and the righteous among the humans and the jinn. Also the different universal phenomena such as; the movement of the earth and celestial bodies, shooting stars and meteors, the succession of night and day, the seasons, thunder and lighting, wind, clouds, rain, the flow and stores of water, earthquakes, volcanoes, storms and tornadoes on earth and in the sea, among others. All of these natural phenomena are from among the hosts of Allah. Although scientists understand the mechanics of these occurrences, it does not change the fact that Allah (SWT) uses them to punish sinners, test the righteous and to serve as an example for those who were saved.

 

 

 

2) “And to Allâh belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth.” This fact is mentioned in the fourteenth ayah of Surat Al-Fateh, and many other ayahs. It is not possible for a rational person to conceive of the universe as existing without a Creator, Owner or Proprietor who has power, knowledge and wisdom. The material world cannot exist of itself or through mere coincidence because it is subject to many laws that cannot be replaced or changed; coincidence is far too limited to achieve this. There must, therefore, be a great Creator for this universe who has no partner in His Dominion, no rival to his kingdom or similitude from his creation.

 

 

 

3) The divine laws of Allah in the universe are not replaced, exchanged or changed without the permission of Allah (SWT). Surat Al-Fateh refers to this fact in ayah 23, “…And you will not find any change in the Way of Allâh.” (Al-Fateh: 23)

 

 

 

4) Reference to some of the characteristics of the last Messenger, Muhammad (PBUH) and reference to the characteristics of those who believed with him in the Torah and Gospel.

 

 

 

5) Allah compares the growth in the number of Muslims from the small number who followed the Prophet (PBUH) when he first started calling to Islam in their gradual increase to a plant reproduction method using the sprouts that grow in the part between the root and the stem. This method of reproduction was discovered only recently, but this ayah using it as a symbol was revealed over fourteen hundreds years ago in the Qur’an. The fact that this book was revealed to an illiterate Prophet whose people who were mostly illiterate people dwelling in the desert has many interpretations for people who have intelligence and vision.

 

 

 

Each of the issues raised require special attention, thus I will limit the discussion only to the last point, which is the plant reproduction by the abovementioned method. Before I begin, let us have a quick look at some scholar’s interpretations of this ayah.

 

 

Interpretation of this ayah by some scholars:

 

 

 

The ayah that can be translated as, *“Muhammad (PBUH) is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taurât (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers, that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allah has promised those among them who believe (i.e. all those who follow Islamic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise).”* (TMQ, Al-Fateh: 29).

 

 

 

 

 

Ibn-Kathir said, “This nation (the Muslims) has been honored in the earlier Books; the most honored and greatest are the companions of the Prophet (PBUH). Allah has mentioned this in the earlier Books which is why Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as, (This is their description in the Taurât) and He says what can be translated as, (But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers.) This is how the companions of the Prophet (PBUH) were: they helped him, assisted him, and made him victorious. They were with him like the sprouts to the plant (that He may anger the disbelievers with them).

 

 

 

Other commentaries on the Qur’an provide similar descriptions, thus there is no need to list them.

 

 

Scientific indications in this ayah:

 

 

 

The ayah that we are examining states that the example of the Prophet (PBUH) and his companions was mentioned in the Injil (Bible), revealed to the Prophet Isa (AS), was an early announcement of the mission of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), seal of the Prophets: “… like a (sown) seed which sends forth its sprouts, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem …”

 

We use the Arabic word “Shata’a” shoot for a plant when it develops extra stems from the nodes at the base of the stem that resemble it completely, whereas the branches are different from the stem and sprout out from any part of it.

 

 

 

“Then it supports” means that the original plant supplies the new shoot with the necessary nutrients, then it becomes more strong and reinforcing the mother plant at its base. In saying “supporting”, it means strengthening it from the bottom. It has been scientifically proven that when the new sprout formed from the primary mother plant, it is completely dependent on it for nutrition until it develops three green leaves and four or five roots, making it able to become self-dependent.

 

 

 

“Then it becomes thick” means that it changes from being fine to becoming thick strengthening the walls of its cells by secreting large amounts of cellulose and lignin forming of a number of nodes covered with leaf sheaths.

 

 

 

“And it stands straight on its stems” meaning it is standing straight on its roots. “Stems” is the plural of “stem” and this stage – the stage of standing straight on its stems- follows the stage of becoming thick where the cells start dividing to lengthen the area between each node and the one next to it known as the “Internodes”. The internodes push one another until growth is complete, and the stem stands straight on the stalk when the stalk reaches the final stage of its development.

 

 

 

As for palm tillers, there are two types: The first type grows at a certain height from the trunk of the palm tree and does not have roots; it is known by as the Stolon. The second kind grows at the bottom of the palm tree and has its own roots. It can be removed from the palm tree to be used to propagate the tree by planting it elsewhere.

 

 

 

The ayah we are examining refers to a botanical fact that was recently discovered, that is the reproduction in some plants by the method of sprouting which refers to the sprouts that grow at the part between the root and the stem. This method is used in some cash crops such as wheat, barley, rice, sorghum, sugar cane, and others from the gramineae family. They are distinguished by; tape-like leaves, slim longitudinal stems which consist of connected internodes, complex flowers that blossom then take the form of spikes later. They also have fibrous roots with rhizome nodes and they mostly reproduce by sprouting, which increases their caryopsis. The “family Gramineae” which is the grass family, is one of the largest in the whole plant kingdom (comprising over 450 genera out of the plant genera and contain more than 7000 species). Each of these species represents billions of members and so the members of this family have spread over the earth covering huge areas, greater than the area covered by any other plant families. The gramineae family contains annual and perennial spreading grasses that often have slim internodal stems as in the case of Bermuda grass. Allah (SWT) made it able to reproduce through sprouting so its stem would strengthen in the face of the wind, straighten and increase its caryopsis yield.

 

 

 

Sprouting is basically the sprouts that grow in the area between the root and the stem, even in the case of wheat whose roots are made of a basic group growing from the germinated seed and an un-basic group that grows from the side sprouts. The stem is also divided into two; the main stem sprouting from the plumule which comes out of the germinated seed after its full growth and various horizontal stalks sprouting from the base of the stem (in the form of horizontal straws that grow from the axial sprouts which exist on the base nodes and grow up on the base of the main stem). That is the reason why plants that reproduce by the method of shooting undergo stages of; germination, seeding, shooting, blossoming then producing caryopsis. In turn, caryopsis multiply through sprouting that could reach 30 in one plant. That’s how a group of stems can sprout from one single seed surrounding the main stem, making a complex collection of stems connected with each other and feeding from the fibrous root that in turn grew from one single seed of wheat. All from the same origin and all from the same seedling and the same root. The sprouts would grow till they reach the length of the original stem and they produce spikes just like them. So each sprout would have its own wheat spike just like the main stem. The wheat spike is a compound one (it carries other spikelets inside it). All are arranged in two rows till they reach the end spikelet. Each spikelet carries 2 to 3 wheat grains, whereas the spike carries 15 to 20 wheat grains. When the sprout multiply the original stem of the plant is surrounded by a number of secondary stems (sprouting), that grow in the form of a bundle increasing the circumference of the main plant, enabling it to stand upright over its own roots to face the wind. It also prevents any weeds from growing next to it. On the other hand, tillers (like the palm tillers) would weaken the mother plant and reduce the amount of nutrients sap reaching it, especially those which reach high near the trunk. They also act as perfect hosts for pests and insects.

 

 

 

The reader of the Holy Qur’an will be surprised by the precise choice of the word shoot in the ayah that we are examining because shoots are completely different from palm tillers and from other offspring of plants. The new parts of the plant that developed from sprouting are not removed from the primary plant, but the tillers and other offspring are removed from their origins as in the case with the date palm trees. Botany researches have proved that sprouting prevents the mother plant from being dormant (which usually happens during the formation of the spikes).

 

 

 

The ayah describes the strong tie between the seal of the Prophets (PBUH) and his companions, which was demonstrated in their love, care, and mercy for one another at a degree that is not comparable to any relations among people or groups. The ayah uses the term “shooting” around the origin and strengthening one another. All the parts receive their nutrition from one source. The ayah did not choose palm tillers as an example since its role is completely different.

 

 

 

While the sprouts receive their nutrients with the original stem from the same root system, and never separate from it (otherwise they would die) the tillers that grow from the base of the palm tree separate from its origin by forming other side horizontal roots that become its main source of nutrition for the palm tiller. This allows it to be independent from its origin, and can be moved to another place where it starts a new life that is completely independent from the origin that produced it. Allah gave the likeness of the Prophet (PBUH) when he was sent with the Message, and took on the responsibility of Allah’s religion by himself to the example of a blessed plant and talking about his companions. He also gave the likeness of the companions of the Prophet (PBUH) - their gathering around him, their love for him, their sincerity, their loyalty to his blessed personality - to the growing sprouts around a blessed plant. It was not proper to use the example of tillers that quickly separate from its origin in their case. The companions of the Prophet (PBUH) were very attached and close to him. They were connected to him all through his life, and even after his death. Every one of the blessed companions and every Muslim would wish and pray that Allah allows him to live according to the Sunnah of the seal of the Prophet (PBUH), and die on his creed, to be resurrected among his companions, and united with him in the highest place in paradise, Allah willing. The best proof to this is the description of Urwa Ibn-Masoud al-Thaqafi, before embracing Islam, of the love of the companions to the Prophet (PBUH) when he came to him as a representative from Quraysh on the day of Hodaybia. He returned, and told them: “O people of Quraysh, I have visited Chosroes in his kingdom, Caesar in his kingdom, and Negus in his kingdom. But by Allah, I have not seen a king in his kingdom like Muhammad among his companions. They will never leave him in any case, so make up your minds.”

 

The plant that sends forth its shoots, then makes it strong, and becomes thick and it stands straight on its stem is an example to the companions toward the Prophet (PBUH): their gathering, love, loyalty, allegiance, sacrifice, and production from the same source. This precise example is an assertion that the Holy Qur’an cannot be man made because no human knew the difference between the sprout, the branch and the tiller from fourteen centuries, or not even one century ago. And this is a witness of the Prophethood and the message of the seal of the Prophet (PBUH) who received it. So the Prayer and Peace of Allah be on the Prophet, his family, his companions, and whoever follows his call until the Day of Judgment. Our last prayer is, ‘praise be to the Lord of the worlds’.

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27752Fri, 24 Mar 2006 19:40:49 +0000
Then Let Man Look At His Foodhttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/27751-then-let-man-look-at-his-food/Wonders of the Holy Qur’an 2

 

 

 

II. “Then let man look at his food” (TMQ, Abasa - He frowned: 24) [1]

 

 

 

 

 

This venerable ayah comes at the beginning of the second half of Surat Abasa [He Frowned]. It is a Makkan Surah comprised of 42 ayahs. Its major focal point is a great Islamic principle denoting that superiority between people can exist only on the basis of their devoutness--not taking into consideration their ancestry, financial abilities, social levels, rank, power, age, color, or race. Allah wanted to enhance this value in the hearts and the minds of Muslims, thus He illustrated it through an event involving His Messenger (peace be upon him) in the revered city of Makkah.

 

 

 

The Messenger was occupied with inviting a group of Qurayshi leaders to Allah’s final religion (Islam), so he turned away from a blind companion - one of the first to embrace Islam - who came to ask him about an Islamic issue. Therefore, Allah (SWT) sent down a reprimand at the beginning of this honorable Surah emphasizing the truth He revealed in another part of His book saying “Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa (i.e. he is one of the Muttaqun(the pious). Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware."* (TMQ, Al-Hujurat-The Apartments: 13).

 

 

 

In order to establish this Islamic principle without which human societies cannot be reformed, Allah (glory be to Him) sent down from the seventh sky this reproach to His most beloved human creature and the one nearest to Him. This high principle must govern human societies if people want to live according to Allah’s doctrine and, thus, achieve the goal for which they have been created. That is why Allah has preserved this reproach in His honorable book which will be read till the Day of Judgment. It is a reminder of this human value which Muslims must take into consideration within their societies in general and in their Da’wa to the religion of Allah, in particular.

 

 

 

This Surah touches upon man’s ungratefulness towards his Creator (SWT). It reminds him of his origin, his growth, and how Allah prepared him for this life and smoothed the paths for him. It also reminds him that his earthly life will end in a tomb after death; and his resurrection will be to account for his deeds.

 

 

 

The ayahs respond to this human ungratefulness by giving a number of indications of Allah’s capability; how He has excelled in creating man and providing him, as well as his cattle, with food. It reminds him of the hereafter and its terrors and trials; illustrating some of its scenes and portraying the impact on Allah’s creatures. These are divided into two groups: happy, optimistic believers and miserable, afflicted unbelievers.

 

 

 

This venerable Surah starts with the reference to the incident that concerns the companion, Abdullah Amr Ibn Qays, known as Ibn Umm Maktoom. This happened in the honorable city of Makkah before immigration to Madinah. Though Ibn Umm Maktoom was blind yet he was quite insightful as he was one of the first to embrace Islam. One day, he came to ask the Prophet about an Islamic issue and found him occupied in arguing with some Qurayshi leaders and calling them to Allah’s final religion, hoping they would support it rather than have enmity and repulsion for it. In this confusion, Ibn Umm Maktoom insisted on questioning the Prophet while the latter wished he had waited a little bit till he might convince these Qurayshi leaders. But Ibn Umm Maktoom went on asking him, so the Prophet (PBUH) frowned and turned away from him. Allah (glory be to Him) sent down this Surah in which He vigorously reproached His Messenger over this incident.

 

 

 

At first the message of this Surah was impersonal; then, Allah directly addressed the Prophet (PBUH). He says “(The Prophet) frowned and turned away. Because there came to him the blind man (i.e. Abdullah bin Umm-Maktum, who came to the Prophet (PBUH) while he was preaching to one or some of the Quraish chiefs). And how can you know that he might become pure (from sins)? Or he might receive admonition, and the admonition might profit him? As for him who thinks himself self-sufficient, to him you attend; what does it matter to you if he will not become pure (from disbelief: you are only a Messenger, your duty is to convey the message of Allah). But as to him who came to you running, and is afraid (of Allah and His punishment), of him you are neglectful and divert your attention to another. Nay, (do not do like this); indeed it (this Qur'an) is an admonition; so whoever wills, let him pay attention to it. (It is) in Records held (greatly) in honor (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz), exalted (in dignity), purified, in the hands of scribes (angels); honorable and obedient.” *(TMQ, Verses 1-16).

 

 

 

After the revelation of this Surah, the Prophet (PBUH) honored bin Umm Maktoom whenever he saw him. He even appointed him twice as his vicegerent in Madinah as he was one of the first immigrants to the city. He then was martyred in Al-Qadiseya (RA). More than that, it is reported that the Prophet (PBUH) never frowned at a poor person after this incident nor concentrated on rich people anymore. Sufyan Athawri (RA) reported that the poor were treated like princes in his assembly.

 

 

 

The lesson we learn from this incident is that one should not restrict his call to the path of Allah for one particular people in favor of others because only Allah, the Almighty, knows who is worth calling. So one must address all the people impartially, not taking into account their race, ancestry, gender or age; nor should he consider their educational ability, technological and material wealth or social rank. Islam does not approve of social discrimination and Allah does not accept racial or social prejudice as a basis of legitimate rivalry.

 

 

 

The fact that the Prophet announced Allah’s reproach to him is one of the clearest proofs of the authenticity of his Prophethood, the nobleness of his message and his total servitude to his Creator. For exhibiting such a reproof can only be done by a noble Prophet who is aware of Allah’s rights upon him and of the sacredness of the revelation that was sent to him with Allah’s eloquent words to which there is no omission, addition or any of human interference.

 

 

 

Also, the announcement of this divine decision to Qurayshi leaders while Muslims were a weak minority in Makkah--where they lived inside a pagan environment filled with blind, social inequity and was governed by savage habits. This was a great proof that this last Prophet and Messenger (PBUH) who was bound to Allah’s inviolable revelation--taught by the Creator of the earth and the skies—and had His support.

 

 

 

The ayahs continue to confirm the divine pronouncement as a reminder from Allah (SWT) to whoever wants to be reminded. Especially that this instruction is kept in the pages of the Qur’an that are, *“held (greatly) in honor (Al-Lauh Al-Mahfuz), exalted (in dignity), purified,”* and saved by Allah who made it out of the reach of any imposed interferences or human distortion or falsification! *"In the hands of scribes (angels); honorable and obedient…”* these are venerable Angels who brought the sacred Qur’an to the last of the Messenger and Prophet (PBUH).

 

 

 

If Muslim societies could live according to these spiritual criteria which give greater weight to virtuous, righteous and devout people rather than to mischievous, fraudulent, greedy, scandalous ones who adore the worldly life and forget the hereafter. The latter often crave for higher powerful ranks in order to extort money from people, to rob their societies, thus humiliating and tyrannizing their people. If heavenly criteria dominate the earthly human societies, they will certainly achieve contentment. Unfortunately, priorities been inverted and balances neglected and earthly criteria superseded spiritual ones. Values have been confounded and perception flustered. The unscholarly have power; the truthful is considered a liar and the liar is considered truthful; the unfaithful is trusted and the faithful is mistrusted! So, human societies have become miserable.

 

 

 

The ayahs continue with a tone of amazement at the rebellious attitude of man who disbelieves in Allah and ignores the necessity of believing in Him. He turns away from His guidance and displays a haughty arrogance opposing Allah’s message and considers himself above submissiveness to His sovereignty through obedience and worship. The ayahs remind him of his origin, his upbringing, his weakness at the beginning of his existence, his need for Allah’s care at different stages of his life and in every moment of his life. Allah has given him many gifts and abilities and made it easier for him to live his life and to find guidance. Unfortunately, man is unmindful of all that! So he does not fulfill his duty towards Allah (SWT), nor does he perform his role on earth as it was designed by his Creator. How ungrateful he is!

 

 

 

To describe this oppositional attitude on the part of man towards the blessings and favors of Allah, He says *“Woe to man! What hath made him reject Allah?”* (TMQ, 80: 17). The term “woe to…” is a curse and damnation on the disbeliever. He deserves Allah’s wrath in the worldly life and will certainly find suffering and humiliation in the Hereafter! For even if he lives long, the end of his life is death and then the grave which may either be a garden of Paradise or a pit of Hell. And his resurrection will be just the same as his first creation. The Prophet (PBUH) describes this resurrection by saying, “Between the two blows (of the trumpet) there are forty… then Allah sends water down and people grow up as plants. All of the bodies become dust except one bone--the coccyx--from which creatures are resurrected on the Day of Judgment”.

 

 

 

So it is taken for granted that man’s destiny is held in Allah’s hand from the moment he was a tiny sperm-drop until he is born, and while going through life stages to his death. It is Allah who created him in his father’s sperm when He wanted and brought him to life when and where He desired. It is also He who ends his life when and where He wants and causes him to stay in his grave as long as He wants. Then, when the afterlife starts, He will resurrect him from dust for the Day of Accounting. On that day, people will be divided into two teams: one team will go to hell and the other one to heaven; and each of them will stay there forever, just as the truthful Prophet (PBUH) told us.

 

 

 

Taking this into consideration, the wise man must be ready for that day and try hard to save him from its dreads. The goal behind life is not distraction and amusement; it should not be spent in vain. Man has a double message to carry on in this life: worship Allah (SWT) as He ordered him to and perform well the duties of vicegerent on earth by peopling it and establishing Allah’s justice on it.

 

 

 

Unfortunately, the great majority of people forgets this reality and wastes their lives not thinking of the truth until the moment of death comes and they find themselves faced with judgment. What a difficult moment!

 

 

 

That is why Allah (SWT) says *“Woe to man! What hath made him reject Allah?”* Allah made this ayah in an interrogative reproachful, scolding form. That is: “What made man a disbeliever?” or in other words, “How intense is his disbelief in spite of Allah’s kindness to him!” In both cases there is an exclamation about his intractable disbelief and an affirmation that he deserves the most severe punishment.

 

 

 

Then comes ayah 23 where Allah says, *“Nay, but (man) has not done what He commanded him.”* This ayah is a confirmation that man did not fulfill what Allah ordered him and, thus, deserves suffering about which he was warned by previous Prophets and Messengers.

 

 

 

After that, the text illustrates one of Allah’s greatest signs in creation which is providing ample and necessary food, appropriate to all living creatures on earth; among them man and his cattle. So the ayahs direct the ungrateful man’s attention to this truth saying, “Then let man look at his food. We pour forth water in abundance, and We split the earth in clefts, and we cause therein the grain to grow, and grapes and clover plants (i.e. green fodder for the cattle), and olives and date-palms , and gardens dense with many trees, and fruits and herbage,(To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle.” (TMQ, Abasa: 24-32).

 

 

 

The meaning of the term “look” here is not limited only to sight but goes beyond it. It is a kind of proverb. For food is one of the major necessities of life and no one can pretend that he has anything to do with the water cycle which is created and monitored by Allah, thanks to His knowledge, wisdom and capability. Concerning this, the Prophet reported from Allah in the following divine Hadith (Hadith Qudsi), “Some of My bondsmen (servants) start the day as My believers and some as unbelievers. He who said: We have had a rainfall due to the Blessing and Mercy of Allah, is My believer and a disbeliever of stars, and whoever said: We have had a rainfall due to the rising of such and such (star) disbelieved in Me and affirmed his faith in the stars.” (Al-Bukhari). He also said, “No one knows when it will rain but Allah” (Al- Bukhari).

 

 

 

Also, no wise man can pretend that he is able to make seeds grow or to split the earth in order to bring up the plants! Nor can he claim that he is able to create a single species from all of earth’s plants that exceed 300,000 different species! And every variety is subdivided into billions; each one has its own external, internal, anatomical and functional characteristics that distinguish it from the others!

 

 

 

In this Surah, Allah the Almighty referred to corn (grains), grapes, olives, and dates, gardens dense with lofty trees, fruits and herbage, grazing fodder for animals. And these particular varieties cover almost all of what man and his cattle need in order to survive!

 

 

 

Then, the Surah in its last ayahs goes back to discussing the end of man’s life. For after enjoying all this life’s pleasures and ornaments, there comes death and the grave; then, resurrection and the great presentation in front of Allah (SWT) for judgment. And finally, he will live out eternity in the hereafter either in Heaven or in Hell. Allah, the Almighty says *“Then when there comes As-Sakhkhah(the second blowing of the Trumpet on the Day of Resurrection), that Day shall a man flee from his brother, and from his mother and his father, and from his wife and his children. Everyman that Day will have enough to make him careless of others. Some faces that Day will be bright (true believers of Islamic Monotheism), laughing, rejoicing at good news (of Paradise). And other faces, that Day, will be dust-stained, darkness will cover them; such will be the Kafarah (disbeliever in Allah, in His Oneness, and in His Messenger Muhammed (PBUH)) the Fajarah (wicked evil doers)."* (TMQ, Abasa: 33-42)

 

 

 

The “Deafening Noise” is one of the names of the Last Day. It refers to the second blow of the trumpet and it is called this because it deafens the ears since it is loud and shrill. That day will be so full of terror that man will be fleeing from the closest people to him. And after judgment people will be divided into believers with beaming, rejoicing faces because Allah the Almighty has honored them in Paradise; and into disbelieving wrong-doers who denied Allah and His last message. They transgressed His limits and violated His commands. Their faces will show regret, remorse, grief and desperation. They will feel humiliated and shamed knowing that their destiny is Hell! On each face will be the indications of one’s destiny.

 

 

 

At the beginning of the Surah Allah the Almighty gave us the criterion for judging Truth and told us that whoever preserved it would succeed in this life and in the hereafter; and he who wasted it, would be miserable now and in the next life. Then, in the end of the Surah, Allah portrayed images of reward and punishment in the afterlife. There is an astonishing duality between the beginning and the end of this Surah. This is but a proof of Allah’s unlimited creative capability that bought forth in a unique achievement this everlasting book which he had preserved in the same language (Arabic) in which it had been sent to His last Messenger and Prophet fourteen centuries ago! It will endure until Allah (SWT) inherits back the earth and all of its inhabitants.

 

References to “nature” in Surat Abasa:

 

 

 

1) The reference to the creation of man from a sperm-drop that contains all his characteristics and destiny.

 

2) Directing people’s attention to aspects of the scientific miracle in providing all the needed factors for the creation of food for man and his cattle, and for every living creature on earth.

 

3) Reference to the water cycle around the earth that results in rain.

 

4) Reference to the fact that rain helps split the earth and irrigates it as a preparation for planting; or the earth splitting through the initial sprouting of plants. And both references are correct.

 

5) Creating different plant varieties and giving the basic models that represent fully all the plant’ groups which comprise the main food for man and his cattle (such as grains, grapes, nutritious plants, olives, dates, gardens dense with lofty trees, fruits and fodder).

 

6) Stating that the extraction of plants from the dead earth is a simile for the resurrection of bodies that became dust.

 

7) Reference to the reality of life, death and then resurrection and judgment.

 

 

 

Each of these issues needs a special analysis. Because of this I will limit myself to the second issue only which was mentioned in the ayahs 24 to 32. But before that I would like to quote Ibn-Kathir’s notes about these ayahs.

 

 

Interpretations of this ayah by some scholars:

 

 

 

Mentioning Ibn-Kathir as an example here is the summary of his explanation of the ayahs 24-32 written above: (Then let man look at his food,) here Allah is raising the feeling of indebtedness within man, He is also giving evidence for the resurrection of the body after it became old bones and dust through the creation of plants in a lifeless earth. *(We pour forth water in abundance,)* means, we sent it down from sky to earth. *(And We split the earth in clefts,)* means, thanks to water which penetrated the earth, plants grew up and emerged from its surface. *(And We cause therein the grain to grow, and grapes and clover plants (i.e. green fodder for the cattle),* corn means all the cereals, grapes are known to all, and nutritious plants refers to the fresh alfalfa given to animals. (And olives) they are a condiment and their extracted oil is also a condiment used as a grease. (And dates,) it is eaten unripe (balah), freshly ripened (rutab) and very ripe (tamr); it is used either cooked or uncooked, and we can make thickened syrup or vinegar from it. *(And gardens dense with many trees,)* means, gardens full of tall palm-trees … or dense trees gathered in one place under which one can seek the shade. *(And fruits and herbage,)* the first are all the soft and sweet fruits and the latter are all the plants eaten by animals but not eaten by man (herbage and grazing). *((To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle.)* This means, as a living for you and your cattle in this worldly life, and until the last day.

 

 

 

Other commentators said almost the same thing, and I see no need for repeating all this here, though they are all prominent scholars.

 

Scientific implications in this ayah:

 

 

 

1. “Let man look at his food” (TMQ, Abasa:24)

 

 

 

Man has primarily relied on plants for his food. That is why the ayahs that follow talk about pouring water from the sky and splitting the earth, then about many plant varieties and their fruits that cover all man’s and his cattle’s needs for vegetable food. The latter refers to animal food, for animals that man eats are nourished with plants and their fruits. Also, such food is a source of energy that enables him to do physical activities. It preserves, as well, his body temperature and builds up cells and tissues that are necessary in different growing stages, or replaces the lost ones.

 

 

 

Man’s body has a vital need for air, water and food. If he is prevented from air for some minutes only, he’ll die of asphyxia; and if he lacks water, he will survive for only a few days. He can live without food for weeks but will lose a lot of weight and will experience serious health problems if he does not compensate for it.

 

 

 

Man needs the following basic elements in his food:

 

 

 

a. Carbohydrates

 

 

 

They are important organic compounds whose components are made through the union of carbon atoms with both hydrogen and oxygen (with the same proportion found in water). The existence of carbohydrates in both plants and animals is found in different forms, the simplest being the monosaccharide like glucose and fructose. This monosaccharide combine with each other through special links to form disaccharides, such as sucrose found in sugar cane and beet, lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (barley sugar). These also combine into trisaccharides like raffinose, starch, and cellulose. Starch is found in many plants. It is enclosed in their seeds, nodules and fruits. The cell walls of plants, on the other hand, are mainly made of cellulose; and it is found in straw, wood, cotton and in other groups of vegetables.

 

 

 

b. Proteins

 

 

 

They are organic compounds. They are formed by the union of carbon atoms with hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen atoms. Some of their components may contain sulfur and phosphorus atoms. These elements exist in long amino acid chains. Proteins are made of as many as twenty amino acids that are linked through a special linkage called peptide bond. The protein component enfolds on itself into a spiral. Proteins can be found in very simple varieties made of only amino acids, and in very complex varieties combined with other chemical compounds. They exist in living creatures’ tissues and protoplasm, and play very important roles in many of their biological activities such as the support and movement of bones and muscles, transport and communication in blood and between the nerves, writing the genetic code and stimulating different interactions like secretion of enzymes and some hormones.

 

 

 

c. Oils and Fat

 

 

 

They are basically formed by the union of carbon atoms with hydrogen and oxygen atoms in higher proportions than that found in water and carbohydrates. Some fats also contain sulfur and nitrogen. Oils and fats have an identical chemical composition; if this composition remains liquid at twenty degrees centigrade, it is called oil; but if it solidifies, it is called a fat. Fats are known as glycerides because they are composed of fatty acids and glycerin linked together. Glycerin, oil, and fat are called lipids. Some plants such as olives, sesame, black-eyed peas, soy beans, linseeds, cotton seeds, sunflower seeds, palm seed oil, walnut; and some crops such as wheat, corn, and rice are all considered as important sources of vegetable oil.

 

 

 

All these compounds--carbohydrates, proteins, and fats--are characterized by symmetry, precision and complexity in their form. This definitely means that they could not have created themselves nor could they have been created by accident. They are rather a proof of Allah’s absolute ability, creative genius, complex creation and precise control. That is why man’s attention was drawn to the creation of his food.

 

 

 

2. *“We pour forth water in abundance,”* (TMQ, Abasa:25)

 

 

 

“We pour” means water is poured in abundance from the sky, as what happens when it rains. And if there was no water cycle around the earth, all the water which is the main source of life where billions of living creatures live and die every moment, would have been completely polluted. The amount of water on earth is 1.4 billion cubic kilometers; 380,000 cubic kilometers evaporates every year and then comes back to earth through rain which is spread on earth according to Allah’s knowledge, wisdom and ability! No one can govern the water cycle but Allah (SWT), and nobody can cause one drop of water to pour down from the sky whenever and wherever he wants but Allah. That is why there is this reference in the ayah that pouring water from the sky is a clear evidence of Allah’s capability.

 

 

 

3. *“And We split the earth into clefts,”* (TMQ, Abasa:26)

 

 

 

Fissures are long cavities formed on any surface. “We split” here means the vertical effusion of rain water when it is poured on earth; and it has been proved that rain water spilled on earth can cause fissures in which the depth varies between a few meters to two hundred meters. This permits water to pierce through permeable rock layers so that water is stored under the surface and its freshness and content is renewed due to the presence of oxygen. These fissures connect with similar varied rock fissures, stratification levels in sedimentary rocks, and dissolved caves in calciferous and saliferous rocks that can reach dozens of kilometers resulting in holes, routes, galleries, and agoras. This connection promotes weathering of rocks and storage of underground water, and enhances its role in making the fissures wider. This is done through different aspects; by mechanical erosion (the effect of frost), erosion caused by living creatures, and chemical erosion (through dissolution, carbonization, conversion, liquidizing and oxidation) which weaken the rocks’ cohesion and helps them to split and fragmentize to make topsoil. It also helps plants get all they need from water and nutritious components.

 

 

 

This seems to me--Allah only knows--the closest meaning for “We split the earth” since it comes immediately after reference to pouring water. However, there is another possibility. The ayah may be referring to the fact that the splitting of the earth is a result of the mixture between the soil and rain water. Agricultural soil is composed mainly of calcic minerals which are basically made of hydrated aluminum silicates that are piled up on one another forming thin layers. This chemical compound has a great affinity for water, so when it becomes wet, it inflates and becomes fluffy, which allows it to float to the top. As a result, the soil becomes very supple; it splits to let the stalk emerge from inside the seed buried in the soil and takes it to the surface. This occurs due to the water being displaced in an amount equal to the amount of air found between calcic layers and due to the colloidal movement of the collagenous substance through the soil’s calcic minerals. This also occurs as a result of the repulsion of the similar electric charges on the surface of those layers on one hand, and of both poles of the bipolar water component on the other hand.

 

 

 

Also, there is a microcosm of life in the soil, where billions of dormant living creatures are found. When water reaches them, they arouse and become active. These are seeds, tiny eggs and larva as well as bacteria and fungi. The earth’s store of these living creatures varies from microscopic organisms to vertebrates. So, it seems clear that the force that leads to the growing of seeds is something not to be taken lightly!

 

 

 

4. *"And we cause therein the grain to grow, and grapes and clover plants (i.e. green fodder for the cattle), and olives and date-palms, and gardens dense with many trees, and fruits and herbage, (To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle.”* (TMQ, Abasa: 27-32).

 

 

 

These ayahs refer to all plant varieties that man and his cattle need for their nourishment. The term “corn” covers the family of cereals like wheat, barley, corn and rice. This is the most important family of plants as far as the economy is concerned for both man and his cattle because it also includes animal feed and pasturage; and its fields cover most of the agricultural land on earth. Grapes belong to a family that contains eleven genera and more than six hundred plant varieties.

 

 

 

“Clover plants” refer to the wild forage for cattle and animals such as grasses and berseem, but it is not always available. Olives represent the entire olive family that contains twenty-two genera and more than five-hundred plant varieties. Date palms represent the palm family; it contains two-hundred genera and more than four thousand varieties of trees, bushes and climbers across tropical and temperate regions.

 

 

 

Gardens are described as enclosed and full of high, abundant trees. Fruits are all soft, delicious and sweet produce. It is said that “fruits” here refers to all the produce except for grapes and pomegranates. Fodder is all the herbage and pasturage eaten by cattle and animals such as grass and different fresh and dried plant parts (straw and hay). This term is far more general than the term “nutritious plants”; that is why this section of ayahs ends with the explanation, *"(To be) a provision and benefit for you and your cattle.”* (TMQ, Abasa: 32).

 

 

 

These scientific truths were not known until the twentieth century. Their existence in the Qur’an which was revealed to the Prophet (PBUH) fourteen centuries ago is evidence that it is Allah’s words and also a proof of the Prophethood of the last Messenger, May peace and blessings be upon him, his family, his companions and all those who follow his guidance until the last day.

 

 

 

Praise be to Allah, Master of the universe.

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27751Fri, 24 Mar 2006 19:37:23 +0000
By The Fig, By The Olive. By Mount Sinaihttps://www.gawaher.com/topic/27750-by-the-fig-by-the-olive-by-mount-sinai/Wonders of the Holy Qur’an

 

Signs of creation in the Holy Qur’an and their Scientific Implications

 

1. Botany:

 

I. *“By the fig, by the olive. By Mount Sinai. By this City of Security (Makkah)”* (TMQ, At-Tin – The Figs: 1-3)

 

These ayahs are the opening ayahs of Surat at-Tin (The Figs), a Makkan Surah and one of the shortest in the Holy Qur’an; it has only eight ayahs after The Basmallah (In the name of Allah, the most Merciful, the most Compassionate).

 

 

 

The theme of the Surah deals with two main issues. Firstly, that Allah has honored man; he has created him in the best of forms and with an instinct to act righteously. He has honored him with his lineage, which goes back to Adam (AS), who, as the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) informed us, was created from dust. Man was honored with the truth of belief in Allah (SWT) as his Lord, in Islam as His religion and in the Prophethood and the divine message as being the method of spreading knowledge of Him. This religion (Islam) brought with it clear answers to the questions that confuse people throughout their lives, irrespective of their status or position. Some of these answers concern beliefs, worship, manners and behavior, constituting the core of religion. Man cannot establish any true rules for himself concerning these issues, either as they concern transcendental matters such as faith and divine orders related to worship or because they are rules concerning his behavior, such as ethical matters. Man has never been able to establish rules for his conduct based on his own ideas and abilities, all of which makes religion a necessary part of man’s life on Earth.

 

 

 

The religion must be a true religion, capable of providing man with a correct education and just rules for living by; the religion must be a clear, divine statement, devoid of human designs. This is the distinction between a true and untrue religion. The importance of faith in the life of man becomes clear here. Man is an honored being about whom Allah (SWT) says in the Qur’an, what can be translated as, *“And indeed We have honored the Children of Adam, and We carried them on the land and sea, and have provided them with At-Tayyibat (lawful good things), and have preferred them above many of those whom We created with a marked preferment”*. (TMQ, Al-Israa: 70).

 

 

 

Allah (SWT) has granted His honored creation (man) free will, thus he rewards him for the good deeds he does and punishes him for his bad deeds. Allah (SWT) has made him fully prepared to accommodate this freedom in his body, soul, sentiments, mind and senses. He has made man’s freedom of choice a reason for bestowing honor on him and a means for evaluating his deeds; the more he abides by the rules Allah Has laid down for him, the higher rank of human perfection he reaches. There is no better proof for this than in the Hadith Qudsi in which the Allah (SWT) says what can be translated as, “My bondsman (servant) continues to draw near to me with supererogatory works so that I shall love him. When I love him I am his hearing with which he hears, his eyesight with which he sees, his tongue with which he talks, his heart with which he perceives. Were he to ask [something] of Me, I would surely give it to him, and where he to ask for my victory, I would surely grant it to him. The best ways to worship me, my servant, is to advise for my sake” (Reported by al-Tabarani)

 

During Prophet Muhammad’s (PBUH) night journey, the mi’raj, he was accompanied by Jibril (Gabriel), who stopped at a certain point whereas Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) continued his ascension. Jibril told Muhammad (PBUH) that he could not go further as he would get burned whereas he, Muhammad, could continue. This is an honor no other creatures have achieved nor could ever achieve.

 

 

 

The more man elevates his standing through his good character, the more honor he is given by Allah (SWT); however, this honor can be also removed should man degrade himself by going against his instinct to do good, thus falling beneath the rank of such honor. Then man is rendered to the lowest of the low in this life with his wretchedness and is thrown into the lowest part of Hell in the hereafter. Allah says in the Qur’an what can be translated as,* “Verily, We created man in the best stature (mould). Then We reduced him to the lowest of the low. Save those who believe (in Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous deeds. Then they shall have a reward without end (Paradise).*” (TMQ, At-Tin, The Fig: 4-6).

 

 

 

Some interpretations given for these ayahs state that they mean that Allah (SWT) has created man in the best form, shape and appearance; He has given him a brain, organs, senses, emotions, the ability to acquire knowledge and skills, free will as well as other qualities, talents and abilities that assist him in his life on Earth. They grow with him, peaking in youth and then start their gradual decline and disappearance as one grows old. Weakness succeeds strength and inability succeeds ability. If he is a disbeliever, Allah leaves him to his human weakness and impotence. If he is a devout believer, Allah honors him in his old age, pardons his shortcomings and gives him his due reward even if his weakness prevents him from performing the acts of worship (prayer, fasting, etc.) properly. Ibn Abbas (RA) reported that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said, “When a believer gets old and is unable to carry on performing the religious practices he used to do, Allah writes down for him the good deeds of such performances as if he did them”. It is also stated in Bukhari that Abu Musa Al-Asha’ri said that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “When a believer gets ill or is traveling, Allah writes down for him the good deeds of the religious practices he used to do when he was healthy at home as if he did them.”

 

 

 

These ayahs could quite easily entail both interpretations; these ayahs discuss those who have become weak in old age. At such an age, Allah shows mercy to His believers and leaves the disbelievers in their weakness and impotence. The second interpretation concerns the hereafter and the dreaded terror and punishment. Allah will save His devout worshippers, granting them their due reward, whereas the disbelievers will be thrown into the lowest part of Hell. There are other likely interpretations for these ayahs and Allah knows best concerning them.

 

 

 

The second issue the Surat deals with is the religion (Islam) Allah revealed to mankind gradually through more than 315 Messengers. Allah chose these 315 Messengers from the 120,000 Prophets He sent. All Messengers were sent with the message of Islam; they called on their people to worship Allah alone. The laws sent to nations differed from time to time, yet the message was always the same,* “O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilah (God) but Him. (La ilaha illallah: none has the right to be worshipped but Allah).Certainly, I fear for you the torment of a Great Day!"*

 

(TMQ, Al-Araf: 59, 65, 73 and 85 and Hud: 50, 61, and 84).

 

 

 

Allah completed His message to mankind by sending Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), the seal of the Prophets. As his was the final message, Allah made mention of it in the preceding messages. Allah promised to preserve it in the language in which it was revealed in (Arabic). This final message has been preserved, word for word, letter for letter, for more than fourteen centuries and shall continue to be so until the Day of Judgment. Such preservation is a miracle in itself as none of the other divine books have been preserved in their original state. Allah left the task of the preservation of these books to their people; consequently, parts of these books were either lost or distorted. The distortion of these books has deprived them of their divinity and has made them incapable of guiding people. The blood baths and destruction that sweep Palestine in the names of Moses, Jacob, Isaac, and Abraham (AS), all of whom have nothing to do with the matter, provide ample proof of this. The same as occurs in Iraq and Afghanistan in the name of Jesus (AS), who is innocent of all the crimes and infringements of the simplest human rights that occur there in his name. In the name of religion, the weak are caught up in such conflicts; religion, however, for its part, is innocent of all of this.

 

 

 

It is for this reason that the concluding ayahs of Surat at-Tin address every disbeliever with the critical question that can be translated as,* “Then what can (or who) causes you (O disbeliever) to deny the Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection? Is not Allah the Best of judges?”*(TMQ, At-Tin 7-8).

 

 

 

These ayahs pose the question; what pushes you – disbeliever or polytheist - to disbelieve in Allah after you have seen all these proofs of His creative power and of His ability to resurrect the dead and to judge whether to punish or reward His creation in the Hereafter? This is the truth that has been brought down in all of the divine messages and has been emphasized in the final one, the Qur’an, preserved by Allah. This evidence puts every sinner and disbeliever in the category of those who deny the faith and the truth that Allah is the wisest of all judges; Allah who created all things and judges wisely between his creatures. The Surah concludes with an affirmative question after the negative one which precedes it. Prophet Muhammad says in the Prophetic narration, “When you recite Surat at-Tin and reach the end where it says: ‘Is not Allah the Best of judges?’ Say, ‘yes, He is the wisest of judges, and to that I am a witness”. Malik says, “Al-Bura' Ibn Azeb reported that the Messenger of Allah, while traveling, recited Surat at-Tin in his prayer. He said that he never heard a recitation more beautiful than that of the Messenger of Allah's”.

 

 

 

Surat At-Tin is the only Surah in the Qur'an which has the name of a fruit or a plant. The fig is mentioned in it once and as such is the only mention of figs in the whole Qur'an; olives and the oil derived from it, however, are mentioned in six other ayahs. The Surah begins with Allah swearing by both the figs and the olives. Allah does not need to swear by anything to prove a point to His worshippers; the aim behind this oath is to draw attention to the high nutritional importance of these two types of plants and to the importance of the blessed lands in which they grow. Ibn Abbas (RA) said, "Allah means the figs you eat and the olives from which you press oil." Allah links this oath to another by mentioning two holy places, Mount Sinai and the City of Security (Makkah). Allah says what can be translated as, *"By the fig, by the olive. The Mount of Sinai. By this City of Security (Makkah)"* (TMQ, At-Tin 1-3).

 

 

 

Some scholars have stated that figs and olives are references to the lands in which these two plants grow; Mount Sinai is the mountain upon which Moses conversed with Allah and is found in the Sinai’ peninsula. “Sinai”, in Arabic, means ‘the beautiful or the blessed’. Nowadays, this mountain is known as the Mountain of Moses or the Mount of Al-Munajah (the discourse). The City of Security is the holy city of Makkah with the sacred Masjid of the K’aba; the first sanctuary for mankind. These places have an unquestionable relation to the divine revelation. Linking these holy places with an oath by the figs and olives has led some scholars to say that Allah may be referring to the honor of the lands in which both plants grow; Jerusalem and Mount Zeta where the holy Al-Aqsa Masjid was built. We ask Allah to liberate the Masjid, liberate Palestine and all Muslim countries from tyrannical occupation, Amen.

 

 

 

Figs and olives (of many varieties) are grown in the Levant and south-eastern Turkey. In the Levant, one finds Mount Tina near Damascus, which is the land of gathering (where mankind will gather on the Day of Judgment). In Turkey, there is Mount Judei where Noah’s Arc came to rest and where the remains of Noah’s Masjid are to be found. Furthermore, to each of these three places, Mount Sinai, Jerusalem and Makkah, Allah has sent three of his most important Messengers. Allah sent His Prophet Jesus (AS) to Jerusalem. He spoke to His Prophet Moses on Mount Sinai. As for Makkah, most of the Prophets visited the city and are buried there; it is, of course, also the city where Allah revealed his message to His Prophet Muhammad (PBUH).

 

 

 

Though the Qur’an clearly brings at the beginning of the Surah the mention of two edible plants (figs and olives), yet that does not deny the fact that this oath might also refer to the lands where they grow. It then becomes obvious that the oath is connected to places, when the other part of the oath brings the mention of two holy places (the holiest of which is Makkah).

 

 

 

After the first four oaths, Allah states the reason for which He made these oaths in what can be translated as, “Surely We created man of the best stature; Then We render him the lowest of the low. Save those who believe and do good works, and theirs is a reward unfailing.*” (TMQ, At-Tin, The Fig: 4-6).

 

 

 

The Surah is then concluded with a rebuking and reprimanding question for every disbeliever, polytheist and sinner, in the ayah that can be translated as, ,* “Then what can (or who) causes you (O disbeliever) to deny the Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection? Is not Allah the Best of judges?”*(TMQ, At-Tin 7-8).

 

 

 

In reply, one can only say, “Yes, Allah is the wisest of judges and on this I am a witness”, as the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) taught us.

 

 

Tenets of faith in Surat At-Tin:

 

1. Allah (SWT) has created man in the best form. The disbelievers, polytheists and sinners will be the lowest of the low in this life and the hereafter. As they grow old, Allah will make them weaker and inflict them with disease. In the hereafter, they will then be sent to the lowest place in hellfire. However, those who believe and do good deeds will be honored by Allah; in this life, they will be honored with His blessings, care, generosity and mercy. In the hereafter, Allah will make them enter Paradise and give them their due reward.

2. The only religion acceptable to Allah is Islam. It is the religion Allah revealed gradually to his apostles and sealed with the Prophet Muhammad, preserving it in the language of its revelation (Arabic).

3. True faith is exemplified by good deeds.

4. He who denies the truth of Islam is exempt from Allah’s mercy and is doomed to live in misery in this life and the hereafter no matter how rich, noble and famous he is.

5. Allah (be He Exalted) is the Wisest of judges.

 

 

Signs of creation in Surat At-Tin:

 

1. Allah swore by both the figs and the olives owing to them being complete foods of high nutritional value for human beings. He also mentioned the sanctity of their native lands.

2. Allah swore by the holy mountain, Tur, in Sinai where He spoke to His Messenger and servant, Moses.

3. Allah swore by the City of Security, Makkah, in which the first sanctuary for mankind was built. Modern science has proved that Makkah is the most unique place on earth.

4. Allah refers to man as having been created in the best of statures.

5. Allah warns people that they could be reduced to be the lowest of the low in this life and the hereafter. Allah makes man the most honorable of all creation when he is a good believer and the most hateful when he is bad or a disbeliever. Behavioral science recognizes such depravation in many people nowadays.

 

 

 

Each of the issues mentioned above require separate research. I shall limit my essay to a discussion the first three ayahs of this Surah. Before I begin, let us have a quick look at some scholar’s interpretations of these three ayahs

 

 

Interpretation of these ayahs by some scholars:

 

 

 

Concerning the interpretation of the following ayahs, *"By the fig, by the olive. The Mount of Sinai. By this City of Security (Makkah)"* (TMQ, At-Tin 1-3).

 

 

 

* Al-Tabari (May Allah has mercy on him) says: What is meant by “the figs” is the fruit that people eat and “the olives” is that which is pressed for oil. Allah swore by both of them. There is a difference of opinion concerning the ayah, “And the Mount of Sinai”. Mount Sinai is a well-known mountain; it is said to be the mountain upon which Moses conversed with Allah and built his Masjid. “And this City of Security” refers to the holy city of Makkah which is safe from attack or invasion.

 

 

 

* Ibn-Kathir says: Scholars have differed in their interpretation of these ayahs. Some of them said that in saying “by the figs”; Allah is referring to Damascus and its mountain. Al-Qurtubi said: It refers to the Masjid of the sleepers in the cave. It has been narrated that Ibn-Abbas said: It refers to Noah’s Masjid on Mount Judei. Mujahid said, concerning the figs: The oath refers to the fruit you eat. As for the olives, Qatada said the oath refers to Jerusalem. Mujahid and Ikrima said: Allah means the olives that are pressed for oil, by “Mount Sinai” Allah means the mountain upon which Moses conversed with Him, while “the City of Security” is Makkah. Ibn-Abbas, Mujahid and some scholars said that Allah had sent three of his most important Messengers to each of these three places and it was to them (Moses, Jesus and Muhammad) that Allah revealed the major scriptures. The first place is the land of figs and olives, which is Jerusalem, where Jesus was sent. The second is Mount Sinai where Moses talked to Allah. The third is the “City of Security” which is the holy city of Makkah where Prophet Muhammad was sent.

 

 

Scientific implications in the first three ayahs of Surat At-Tin:

 

 

Allah swearing an oath by the figs

 

 

 

In swearing an oath by the figs, Allah (who knows best) seems to be drawing our attention to the miraculous creation of such fruit and to its high nutritional value.

 

 

 

Parts of the fig’s creation wonders

 

 

 

The fig is a complex accessory fruit that is actually an inside-out flower cluster called a synconium, formed as a result of the growth of synconia in the shape of a cone. Tiny female flowers (pistil) line the inner surface of the synconia while male flowers (stamens) spread out around the outer layer which is narrow at the top. The female flowers usually mature before the male ones. Allah Has assigned the fig wasp (blastophaga) to help pollinate the fig flowers. The relationship is symbiotic; fig flowers provide a warm safe place for blastophaga larvae to stay and feed in until they become adults. As the adult wasps make their way out of the flower, their bodies come into contact with the male flowers, pollen sticks to the body of the insects that then carry the pollen to the female flowers, pollinating them and allowing fertilization to begin. Three generations of flowers are found in the fig tree. The first generation contains the male and insect-hosting flowers. The second generation of flowers is female ones pollinated by the insects coming out of the first generation flowers. These insects fertilize the flowers producing the main harvest of the fig tree. The third generation flowers contain insect-hosting flowers where the insects spend the winter.

 

 

 

Who else but Allah could set up such an accurate reproductive system for the fig tree? Who else but Allah could teach the fig wasp that its home is in the flower of fig tree to assist fertilization as it moves from one flower to another? The relationship between this insect and the fig flower is one of the most amazing examples of symbiosis between plants and insects.

 

 

 

The benefits of figs

 

 

 

Figs are rich in carbohydrates which form 53% of their overall mass. Monosaccharide and carbohydrate compounds make up the majority of carbohydrates present along with a small amount of proteins (approximately 3.6%) and smaller amounts of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, sulfur, sodium and chorine. Figs also contain many vitamins, enzymes, acids, antiseptic agents, high fiber content (18.5%) and a high percentage of water. Among the special enzymes found in the fig is an enzyme called ficin which has been found to play an important role in digestion.

 

 

 

Japanese scientists have discovered an aromatic aldehyde compound, benzaldehyde (C6H5CHO) in figs. This chemical compound was extracted from figs and has proved to be effective in fighting carcinogens. Carbohydrates compounds known as the soralins have also been discovered in figs; these compounds play an important role in fortifying blood against a number of disease-causing viruses and parasites, such as hepatitis C. This carbohydrate group is found in large amounts in figs; in its syrup, juices and jams.

 

 

 

Fig have also proved to be beneficial for breastfeeding mothers, in treating hemorrhoids, chronic constipation, gout, chest diseases, menstrual disorders, epilepsy, mouth ulcers, gingivitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, leucoderma, removing warts, healing injuries, and different kinds of ulcers. Thus, Abu Darda’ narrated that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “If I were to tell you of a fruit that has been sent from paradise, it would be the fig. Fruits of paradise are without pits. Eat the fig as it is a cure for hemorrhoids and gout”.

 

 

Swearing an oath by the olives:

 

 

 

Olives and olive oil are mentioned in the Qur’an seven times; one of these occasions is where Allah swears by the fig and the olive at the beginning of Surat At-Tin. The olive tree is a blessed tree and so is its fruit. It is a perennial tree which can live for more than a thousand years. It is considered an important source of oil. Olive oil is one of the healthiest oils; it contains very small amounts of fatty acid and does not increase the amount of harmful fats in the blood as other kinds of oil do. This is because the fats in olive oil are all unsaturated and do not cause atherosclerosis, hypertension or any other diseases. Olive oil is a yellow transparent fluid rich with oleic acids, used in cooking or added to salads. It plays an important role in deoxidizing the cholesterol secreted by the body. This is because it contains vitamin E as well as other chemical compounds known as polyphenolic compounds which prevent the oil from autoxidizing, protecting the body from the dangers of harmful lipid peroxides.

 

 

 

Regular consumption of olive oil decreases the overall amount of cholesterol in the blood and its other harmful kinds in particular. More particularly, it reduces the possibility of heart diseases and cancer. Aside from its use in cooking, olive oil is an ingredient of many medicines, ointments, hair oils, soap, and it is also used in oil lamps because of the clear flames it produces.

 

 

 

Curing olives preserves them for use in food. The oil content of an olive is approximately 67-84% of its mass. Olive oil is made up of important chemical compounds, including glycerol compounds and fatty acids known as glycerides. Fatty acids make up a high percentage of the oil’s mass; oleic acid constitutes the largest percentage of the fatty acids in olives and olive oil, along with small amounts of palmatic acid, linolic acid, stearic acid, and mystric acid. Moreover, olives and olive oil contain a moderate amount of proteins and smaller amounts of potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, copper, sulfur and fibre. These elements are needed to produce about a thousand chemical compounds that are essential and useful for the wellbeing of the human body. For these reasons and for others unknown to us about olives, Omar Ibn Al-Khattab (Allah Be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “Eat olives and use its ointment for it comes from a blessed tree”. Muadh Ibn Jabal (Allah Be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, "The best miswak[1] is that of the olive tree as it is a blessed tree. It is my miswak and that used by Prophets before me”.

 

 

 

Allah swears by the olive and mentions it seven times in the Qur’an. Olive and olive oil are rich in fats and proteins and low in carbohydrates (sugar and starches) whereas the fig is rich in sugar and starchy compounds, and low in fats and proteins. Therefore, figs and olives fulfill the human body’s need for nutritional substances. The oath sworn on them at the beginning of the Surat is a scientific miracle revealed in the Qur’an 1400 years ago.

 

 

Swearing an oath by Mount Sinai

 

 

This is Mount Tur in Sinai, or the Mountain of Moses where the Torah was revealed to Moses. It is mentioned in 12 ayahs in the Qur’an (in Surat Al-Baqara: ayahs 63, 93, An-Nisa’: 154, Al-A’raaf: 143, 171, Maryam: 52, Ta Ha: 80, Al-Mu’minun: 20, Al-Qasas: 29, 46, At-Tur: 1 and At-Tin: 2). One Surah (chapter) even bears its name (Surat At-Tur). It is, of course, a blessed place worthy of having an oath sworn by it.

 

 

Swearing by the City of Security

 

 

The City of Security is the holy city of Makkah where the first place of worship for mankind was built. The Messenger of Allah said, “The Ka’ba was a small hill over water, then the earth formed under it”, meaning that the earth under the Ka’ba is the first piece of land to have appeared on the surface of the huge ocean that covered Earth in the beginning. Then land started to spread around this blessed place to form a continent called the “mother continent” (Pangaea). Pangaea was then divided, forming the seven continents. These continents were much closer to each other than they are now. Later, they started drifting away from each other or colliding with each other until they settled in their current locations. Scientifically, it has been proved that Makkah is and was the centre of land throughout all phases of Earth’s development. In other words, if one draws a circle with Makkah at the centre, the circle would completely surround the solid land on earth. Allah says in the Qur’an what can be translated as, *“Verily, The first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for Al-Alamin (mankind and Jinn).”* (TMQ, 96-Al-Imran).

 

 

 

These ayahs that compare the earth (in its smallness) with the heavens (with its large dimensions) point to the earth being the centre of the universe as does the ayah which talks about the separation and the unification of the earth and the heavens. If the earth was the centre of the universe and the Ka’ba was the centre of the land on the primary earth, then below it are six layers of earth, above it seven skies, making the holy Ka’ba the centre of the centre of the universe. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “The shrine of Makkah, is a midpoint shrine; it is centralized between seven layers of earth and seven layers of skies”.

 

 

 

He further emphasizes this fact by saying,”O people of Quraysh, O people of Makkah, you all stand parallel to the centre of heaven!” Also, the Messenger of Allah once asked his honorable companions, “Do you know what the Bait al-Ma’mur is?” They replied, “Allah and His Messenger know best”. He said, “It is a house in the seventh heaven exactly above the K’aba, if it fell, would fall right over it. Seventy thousand angels enter into it everyday; when the last of them come out they do not return there again”.

 

 

 

All these miracles make Makkah the place that Muslims turn to five times daily in prayers and their place of pilgrimage in which one prayer is equivalent to one thousand prayers elsewhere. It was also the hometown of many Prophets. The Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said, “When their nations perished, Prophets used to migrate to Makkah, stay there with their followers, and worship Allah until they died. Noah, Hud, Salah, and Shu’aib all died in Makkah and were buried between Zamzam well and the black stone”. Prophet Isma’il (Ishmael) and his mother Hagar were both buried at Hajr Ismail, a place in Makkah. Allah also chose Makkah to be the birth place of His last Messenger. He swore by the city in Surat At-Tin and Surat Al-Balad (The City) which He named after Makkah. Allah gave Makkah the epithet of ‘the mother of all cities’ (Ummul Qura) as it was the place where land first appeared and is subsequently the mother of all the earth. Makkah is thus worthy of having an oath sworn by it and of being called the ‘City of Security’ in Surat At-Tin, and was worthy of having a Surat named after it, Al-Balad.

 

 

 

These scientific facts about the fig and the olive, about Makkah, the city of security and the historical and religious facts concerning the meeting between Allah and his servant, Moses, on Mount Tur, were all facts unknown to the inhabitants of the Arabian peninsula and to all mankind at the time of their revelation 1400 years ago and for many centuries after. The oath by the fig and the olive could never be one taken by man; it is the word of Allah and the proof of the Prophethood of His last Messenger, Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). It proves that the Messenger of Allah received the inspiration from Gabriel and was taught by the Creator of the heavens and earth, Allah.

 

 

 

May peace and blessings be upon him (Muhammad), his companions and those who follow him until the Day of Judgment. Praise be to Allah who revealed the Qur’an and granted the blessing of Islam. Praise be unto Allah until we meet with Him and should He will it, He will be pleased with us. He is the Merciful, the Most Generous, and the One who guides to the right path.

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27750Fri, 24 Mar 2006 19:34:25 +0000